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[AMA] I am a Chartered Accountant and Chartered Tax Advisor, ask me anything!

AMA Ground rules

  • This will not be an opportunity for companies or individuals to sell their services or products. There will be no self-promotion as I feel it goes against the nature of this sub. The AMAs are therefore effectively anonymous. Mods will have confirmed that the host is qualified/employed as they claim.

  • Do not ask for personal advice or professional services

  • Keep it civil and allow the AMA host to answer questions


Please note that I will not (and cannot) provide advice specific to your circumstances via an AMA on Reddit, so do not misinterpret any answers as such. If you are thinking of making any decisions off the back of any answers listed here by myself or otherwise, please consult with a qualified accountant or tax advisor. Any answers I do provide are general as I do not know all of the circumstances that affect your situation and may therefore be wrong.

About me

I graduated from University with a BA (Hons) in Accounting in before joining a Big Four accounting firm on their tax graduate scheme and qualified as a Chartered Accountant (ICAS) and Chartered Tax Advisor (CIOT). While there I rotated between Corporate Tax, Personal Tax, and International Tax for Corporates. A couple of years later I moved to an in-house Tax Planning role for a multi-national enterprise. Since then I have established my own accountancy practice offering services to contractors, small businesses, and pilots.

The AMA will be open all day and I will try to continue answering any follow-ups for the rest of the week. I'll try to answer a batch at 1pm and then again after 6pm

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6Moderator of r/UKPersonalFinance, speaking officiallyScore hidden·1 year ago·Stickied comment

Thank you very much u/Harrison88 for hosting our second AMA.

Please remember to be civil, and don't dive in to answer questions before OP. The only second-level comments should be the AMA hosts. Further discussion past that point is absolutely encouraged.

Would you rather be a lion tamer?

Original Poster3 points·1 year ago

I'd rather be an RAF pilot or astronaut. Unfortunately I'm probably too old to start that so I get my thrills from jumping from on top of tax legislation with a parachute.

2 points·1 year ago(4 children)
Original Poster2 points·1 year ago

The process with tax investigations will differ depending on the tax under review. Corporate tax enquiries usually begin with your CRM (customer relationship manager) asking general questions at a meeting. For smaller clients they HMRC will send a letter. This can then evolve into a full blown investigation. Very few enquiries will start randomly. It is usually driven by a risk assessment from the data you put in your tax return. If you receive a letter, there is a fair chance they think you owe tax.

For individuals, even a Self Assessment Tax Return "check" or aspect enquiries should be taken seriously. The information they request will not only to be ensuring the accuracy of the current year but also if previous years should be opened too. They will have done their homework these days.

The penalties levied can range from late fees and interest through to 100% of tax due depending on how co-operative and/or misleading you are. Refuse to help? They will make an assessment and you can watch the penalty go up. It's very rare that they will impose criminal sanctions but they do that have available. They can of course (and often are) wrong though. It won't get far if you appeal and they are wrong as it escalates to more experienced agents.

If an agreement can't be reached on the assessment then you can appeal at various tribunals but it will become expensive. HMRC are unlikely to do this for £500 mind.

Comment deleted1 year ago(0 children)
Original Poster1 point·1 year ago

They have data from a range of sources and profiles (like insurance companies do). If yours doesn't match to what they're expecting then it will be flagged. Are you claiming reliefs that look weird? Do your expenses look similar to average returns in similar trades? They might be targeting particular trades because they've been successful with recent cases.

Do your expenses look similar to average returns in similar trades?

This is a big one - especially if your margins and expenses change significantly from year to year (or quarter to quarter on a year-on-year basis).

I was working with a company where we made some serious improvements with procurement and pricing: sales went up, VAT and CT went up.

3 months after the CT return went in we had a full investigation with one week's notice - an officer from HMRC got set up in our accountant's office and literally went through daily sales receipts and expenses etc.

She was satisfied it was all above board though, so no formal enquiry was opened, but I think a formal enquiry and having an on-site inspection is nearly the same thing!

When you were at one of the Big Four firms and in-house, how many of the actual accountants were paid more than one million pounds a year (incl. bonus/pension) and what did they do?

Original Poster1 point·1 year ago

Most partners will earn around £650k. Office leads might earn a bit more and then I would expect regional partners to be earning more than a million. A partner may have around 3 senior managers, 4 managers and 5 analysts on their team. I'd imagine they have a buy-in loan to pay off too though.

Does in-house pay more?

Original Poster1 point·1 year ago

Not than a partner - although I don't know their net.

In-house director of EAME tax for example might earn £150k. Depends on the size of the organisation but there are a lot less Heads of Tax that are on £1m+ than partners I'd imagine. That's CFO money, even for the largest organisations.

What are some really weird tax laws?

Original Poster7 points·1 year ago·edited 1 year ago

Most of the weird ones come from the ambiguities in VAT legislation. For example, the well known "is Jaffa Cake a cake or a biscuit". VAT is due on chocolate-covered biscuits, but not on chocolate-covered cakes - so which is it? Jaffa Cakes are in fact a cake! Mainly because they have sponge, they go hard when stale rather than soft like biscuits do. VAT is due on eBooks, but not paper books. VAT is also due on clothes, unless they're for children. Pringles? VAT exempt because they contain less than 50% of potato.

Looking to avoid hide away some money from HMRC through some artificial schemes? You need to tell HMRC that you're hiding money from them so they can give you a special number to put on your tax return.

If you're born before 6 April 1938, you get an extra £60 of tax free allowance. (It used to be banded between ages and the difference much greater but they're starting to re-align and simplify.) Blind people also get an additional tax relief of £2,290 per year.

The highest rate of income tax was set during WWII where it hit 99.25%!

Might edit this if I think of any that are actually funny, rather just weird.

The highest rate of income tax was set during WWII where it hit 99.25%!

That's... interesting.

I thought the courts ruled that Pringles are in fact a potato snack:

Has there been a further court case since?

Original Poster1 point·1 year ago·edited 1 year ago

Edit: it was overruled at High Court :)

It's a shame, really; I was looking forward to sharing that with people at work. I'd heard the Jaffa Cake one, but never the Pringle one.

Besides ISAs, what are other easily accessible tax efficient vehicles available to the general public.

Original Poster1 point·1 year ago

There are a range of new tax free allowances that launched this year, including the dividend allowance and interest allowance. Specific schemes also exist now and then like tax free bonds for pensioners. Take a look at the sidebar for more info.

What are the chances of an AI taking over your job in the next 5 years?

Original Poster7 points·1 year ago

If it were up to HMRC, probably 100%. They're pushing to scrap the tax return in favour of "making tax digital". What it really means is quarterly tax returns.

In reality, accountants aren't going anywhere. It's not just about knowing the law but also how to apply it. Without us HMRC would have a much greater battle as we tend to ensure a level of quality in the data being submitted. Without us you will get submissions like this one.

Basis of measurement and preparation of accounts

I don't really know what I'm doing with this account's thing. I spoke to a few people at companies house and asked for their help, they didn't really give a shit or seem very willing want to help... If there are any mistakes I'm sure Companies House will threaten me with further some sort of political money grabbing tactic. I have made a best effort at the today.

50% of the job is also advice for the clients. We're much needed stability for new businesses and a soundboard for their ideas.

I think that is the first time I have laughed when reading abv accounts. Thank you

Accounting law gets more and more complex, what's more sole traders will soon have to file accounts four times a year. Accountants aren't going anywhere!

How hard are the CTA exams. My manager seems to want me to do them but I can't really be arsed. Also I had an interesting discussion with a tax colleague and he concluded that if a rental property ownership is split 99% parent 1% son. The rental income could be split 1% parent 99%son with no recourse for HMRC. I personally though the rental split would have to follow beneficial interest but arguably not. Thoughts?

Original Poster1 point·1 year ago

Very, but I found them a lot more structured thanks to it mainly being maths. Out of my class of 30, 9 people passed all of the exams first time. That's a group of graduates who beat a lot of other people to join who are studying full time with full time tutors.

The issue with CTA is that you pick a topic and the examiner can ask questions on any legislation relating to that topic. The syllabus is the legislation. You could take in the leg when I sat my exams and as long as you knew the basics, could read the leg and could find things quickly in the index then that could be the difference between pass and fail. I only passed one of the exams because I found the proforma and answered the 12 mark question.

I really enjoyed the CTA exams though. Much prefer them to stuffy CA exams with wordy answers ;)

The Final CA exams of 3.5, 3.5 and 4 over a couple of days wasn't fun.

Original Poster2 points·1 year ago

It's that five hour exam that is the kicker. Hated audit too...

61 point·1 year ago

Just to throw a spanner in the works of the 99% 1% split comment above, there is still a £100 PA limit on income attributable to a minor child before it is taxed as parent's income anyway, so if the child in question was a minor it would be for nought.

It was a discussion about adult Children, specifically university children, as we wouldn't want a parental settlement.

Original Poster1 point·1 year ago

Sorry, I forgot about that bit in my reply. You can agree a different ownership share as it isn't a partnership but I would put it in an agreement. Watch the partnership rules where there is more than one or it is more commercial.

Note: this doesn't apply to capital gains - that's based on proportional ownership.

How did the son get the share in the property?

If it was gifted by the parent then I think, without knowing the full context, that is a settlement for ITTOIA purposes - after all, what reasonable, commercial purpose is there in gifting 1% of a property to someone, if not to settle income derived from it.

No spousal exemption!

I don't believe the commercial purpose is required, as it is the 'right' of property owners to determine how the income is distributed, except where the owners are spouses, where it will be determined 50:50 unless a Form 17 is filed. I believe it is a matter of fact, was a gift made, if so, the distribution of profits can be distributed as they wished.

Perhaps me putting in the word gifted and commercial confuses the matter - what I meant is that, according to Lord Hope in the Arctic Systems case:

  • a transfer to be a settlement there needs to be an "element of bounty"

  • a donation to a spouse or child is traditionally expressed in a deed to be "in consideration of natural love and affection" rather than the donor's bounty

  • but, "it seems to me that the general effect of the cases is that, under the arrangement, the settlor must provide a benefit which would not have been provided in a transaction at arms' length"

Therefore, would a parent gift someone 1% of a property if it wasn't to his/her child/spouse? Isn't the true arrangement here to use the child's personal tax allowances - after all, if the parent wanted to gift the child income, he/she could do so using the regular payment out of income IHT exemption, after paying the required tax.

I would argue not, which means there is the required element of bounty, which means it's a settlement.

The question is then whether it falls within the exemption of s.625(3) which u/Harrison88 mentioned: is there a possibility that the interest can devolve back on the settlor apart from the child assigning it, or he/she becomes bankrupt before 25.

If there is, then it's taxable, if not, then there is no deemed interest.

So, we are back to the precise circumstances of how the interest arose!

I take your point regarding the Arctic systems, case and the property interest would have been gifted traditionally " in consideration of natural love and affection", and as I understood it, he did not believe the Arctic Systems case would hold here.

The strategy I've suggested is an adaptation, by Mark Ward (LLB CTA), on this article:

I think that is a situation where two people jointly agree to purchase a property and they contribute 1% and 99% of the consideration - in that case 1%/99% would have no problem, in my view.

If the parent bought the property and then transferred 1% to the child though, I think you throw up the question of the rationale behind the transfer.

If it's an outright gift in natural affection then, case closed - it's fine.

But the problem for me is, why would someone only transfer 1%. To me it looks suspicious, but then perhaps I am overly paranoid!

What are the benefits of having just 1% of a property:

  • you get to veto the tenants

  • 1% of the income interest

You can't enjoy extra security in tenure in reality, because you don't live there - it's a rental property.

The cost:

  • you are liable in future for higher rate stamp duty

If a parent wanted to gift value of 1% of the property, surely it's easier to just pay the child the money? Which leads me to argue that the essence of the transaction is just income shifting tax avoidance, which then falls within the settlement provisions as no true assignation of the beneficial interest has taken place.

Original Poster1 point·1 year ago·edited 1 year ago

I read those rules as saying that they don't apply if the child is under 25 and would need to be required to re-assign the share back to the parent. Doesn't it also need to be repayable to the parent for it to be a settlement anyway?

[Settlement with retained interest] does not apply if—

(a) there are no circumstances in which the property or any related property can become payable or applicable as mentioned in that subsection during the life of a person other than— (i) the bankruptcy of the person, or (ii) the assignment or charging of the person’s interest in the property or any related property, and

(b) the person is alive and under 25 years old.

My reading is that there must be some way for the interest to devolve back upon the settlor apart from bankruptcy or assignment (whilst under 25).

If the true purpose of the "gift" was to use the child's tax allowances - then would an assignment of the beneficial interest have even taken place, or rather, does the son hold the beneficial interest in the property on resulting trust, and thus the exemption doesn't apply?

Otherwise I think we'd see every BTL landlord in the country using their adult children between 18-25's personal allowances!

Original Poster1 point·1 year ago

But that's the point, if you transfer to an 18-25 year old you must not "retain an interest" in the share of the property. They must assign it to you of their own free will.

I think.

I think we have to look at the totality of the arrangement.

As a paranoid tax inspector, I'd have to argue - why on earth would you transfer only 1% of a property as a gift? Why wouldn't you just gift the child money or have them jointly purchase 1% with you.

Would the transferor ever consider giving 1% as a gift to anyone else? I think not - so what other purpose of the transfer is there if only to use the child's tax allowances, to keep money in the family?

In that case, the beneficial interest has not been assigned in truth, only the legal interest.

On the flip side, 1% of the property might be a substantial amount of money and the transferor wants to give their child an asset that may appreciate. Maybe it's an inheritance. I think that also has a strong case.

So, definitely dependent on the specifics of how the property was acquired and the relationship, in my view.

2 points·1 year ago

Any tips for avoiding IR35 and do you think it's just a boogyman?

Original Poster2 points·1 year ago

The best time to negotiate your contract is at the start. If you already have a contract and it falls within IR35 you are better talking to your accountant to figure out next steps. To be honest, the company you're working for will tend to have more of an incentive to ensure you don't fall within IR35 as it will likely come back to bite them. They usually require contractors to use a limited company to engage with them. However, just because you operate through a ltd, doesn't mean you're safe.

Really you should look to ensure you don't meet the employee test. HMRC have an easy tool to check this. It is only a guide though so don't rely on it. You should also have any contracts reviewed by a proper IR35 specialist (which I am not). HM Government can change the legislation at any time and make a large part of the contracting population "employees". The Cameron's Gov looked to just make the tax treatment equal so contractors didn't receive as great a benefit. May's Gov looks to be promoting employee rights. Might be too early to tell though.

If you have an enquiry and they deem you to fall within the scope it will be expensive for all parties. Don't underestimate or think "it won't happen to me".

1 point·1 year ago

Sounds like insurance is the way to go. Thanks!

I don't think you can get insurance against getting taken to court for being subject to IR35. That said, there's at least one professional body that has this for its members, paid for by their membership fees? don't know if anyone would insure an individual for it.

A sole trader, just like a business, must register for VAT if he has a income of more than £83k a year.

If a husband and wife team were selling goods, could they keep separate books and sell up to £160k's worth of goods per year without registering for VAT?

In addition, could someone create multiple companies to avoid registering for VAT?

[I'm also not looking to do this, but was discussing this with a friend last night]

Original Poster2 points·1 year ago

If they both operate different trades then they will have their own VAT limits. If they operate the same trade and sell as one then they will be in a deemed partnership with a single VAT limit. This is where my partnership knowledge ends unfortunately...

For the company question, there is anti avoidance legislation which prevents such schemes. It's basically evasion. Add to the fact that your corporate tax limit is then shared between the group you would be paying more corporate tax than necessary. I don't personally see the benefit unless your main cost is employees and you sell to individuals.

Thanks! If the companies are completely separate entities though, then there is no problem? So for some stupid examples, Person A and Person B create a company selling personalised golf clubs (and they don't want to register for VAT for as long as possible). Then Person A and Person C create a company selling gaming computers (and they don't want to register for VAT for as long as possible). Then Person A and Person B and Person C create a company selling curved glass, etc.

I'm not doing this by the way. Just wondering.

Original Poster1 point·1 year ago

If they all properly operate as separate businesses they would each have their own VAT registration limits. In reality, if you are purchasing goods you would want to test if you make more money by applying VAT and reclaiming under the standard or flat rate scheme.


Honestly have no idea why I'm asking you these questions!

131 point·1 year ago·edited 1 year ago

Just to expand a little on this on a slight tangent not covered by the subsequent thread:

A single person can operate multiple trades (reported in separate Self Employed forms for SA purposes) but for actual tax purposes their income, profit & VAT thresholds would apply to the combined trades. So if a single person had two separate sole trades each with a VAT taxable turnover of £45,000 then at the appropriate point that person would need to register for VAT and apply it as applicable across the board to those trades.

It's only when you start throwing Partnerships and Companies into mix that you can have multiple limits & thresholds for certain tax elements.

If they had a third role as a Partner in a separate, unrelated, Partnership then that entity would have it's own VAT limit. However the profits of a Partnership are not subject to Corporation Tax but are subject to Income Tax at the Partner level. So if you made £15k profit from each Sole Trade & £20k from the Partnership then you'd be paying Income Tax on your total taxable income of £50k.

Companies are different in that they can either pay you a salary (which you would also pay Income Tax on) or pay you dividends based on profits which are subject to their own tax rates depending on your Income Tax band.

Whilst in common nomenclature it's common to say Person A created a company to sell X it's actually very important from a legal & tax point of view to make sure you get the right entity type because they are all treated differently. A Sole Trader specifically isn't a Company (although they could also work for & own one) and two people selling goods together might actually be a Partnership (which is different to a Company). Conducting a trade or trading doesn't specifically mean someone is a Sole Trader it just means an entity, which could also be either a Partnership or a Company, has started or is undertaking commercial activity. Lastly a 'business' can mean any of the above entity types.

When does it make more sense to open LTD company and when is it better to trade in your own name.

Original Poster2 points·1 year ago

It depends what you are trying to achieve. There are benefits to operating through a limited company in that you have some limited liability (not unrestricted - lenders can request a judge to lift the veil of incorporation and most will require a personal guarantee anyway) and there are significant tax benefits for extracting profit/planning for the future. I would normally recommend people consider incorporation at around the £40k a year mark but this is dependent on your situation and other considerations.

Being a sole trader will save you a significant amount of money in accountancy fees due to the difference in the level of work involved for the accountant and admin time, but any serious small business or tradesman should consider incorporating to enable more flexibility on profit extraction.

What are some financial tips and tricks you employ yourself?

Original Poster4 points·1 year ago

Sorry, the best bet for this is too look at the side bar. There is too much to cover otherwise.

If you're asking me personally - I use YNAB for budgeting, have an ISA (rates are low but I hold shares and I'm hoping it will grow), have an emergency budget of a few months salary, and contribute the maximum I can with my employer matched pension. That's about it!

Thanks. Do you have a SIPP alongside your employer matched pension? Will you open a LISA?

Original Poster2 points·1 year ago

No SIPP or LISA. Concentrating on increasing the equity in my home first. I'm still young and have a lot I want to do. Might not be the most extreme planning for the future but I'm lucky enough to be on a defined benefit pension scheme and need flexibility while establishing the business.

do you work with any clients operating BTL businesses? have there been an increase in amateur landlords setting up ltd companies to handle their properties, and would this help them avoid 2nd home stamp duty, keep claiming mortgage relief, etc?

Original Poster1 point·1 year ago

I don't sorry so limited experience on this one. I wouldn't imagine many one home landlords would be looking to incur more costs by setting up a LTD (~£1k in compliance fees pa). Multiple homes might do but it would restrict the number of lenders available. Transfer of ownership will also be classified as a sale and potential capital gain too.

Best talking to a specialist sorry!

Comment deleted1 year ago(1 child)
Original Poster1 point·1 year ago

I'm concerned that the job will become more of a commodity as more time needs to be spent on form filling. Even electronic forms take time to prepare and review. This will push down the amount of money accountants can earn and motivate people who aren't qualified to come in. For example, it's much easier for me to earn more money on a 9-5 job in industry than it is building a client base as a practicing accountant (but where's the fun in that??). People will only pay so much as work loads continue to increase.

I've heard friends ask "I pay my accountant £80 per month and see nothing from them". This concerns me, (1) because I charge £90 per month for a standard contractor and (2) because the clients are clearly not seeing any benefit. It is difficult to demonstrate to the client that there is a lot of admin to deal with for limited companies, including the new AE pension requirements. I can be as active and as mentoring with clients as possible but it is my job to make the client's life as easy as possible. The problem is, when I do that they have no idea what benefit I am bringing.

Comment deleted1 year ago(8 children)
Original Poster2 points·1 year ago

What are you defining as a temporary worker? Are you working for an agency?

Comment deleted1 year ago(0 children)
Original Poster2 points·1 year ago

Then I'd imagine you'll be on PAYE. No need for an accountant unless you trigger one of the self assessment criteria. Even then it's likely you can manage on your own with HMRC's submission wizard.

Just check your tax paid matches what you should be paying at the end of the tax year. You might be owed a rebate.

It's up to him if he wants to do paye and be part of the recruiter's umbrella company, or if he wants to set up an ltd.

Original Poster2 points·1 year ago

For a £30k a year position, are you mad? The accounting fee alone is £1k a year for a limited and that's ignoring the admin hassle.

Comment deleted1 year ago(0 children)
Original Poster2 points·1 year ago

What's the tax code?

You should get an accountant. Look at the recommendations on

Op seems like a nice guy, but is obviously not experienced on this particular topic.

Personally I would always advise setting up an ltd under the guidance of a specialised accountant. If you plan to do more contract work after this 3 month stint, you should seriously consider doing the same. The amount you save in taxes is way more than the cost of an accountant.

Why pilots? And what kind of weird arrangements do they need specifically?

Original Poster1 point·1 year ago

They tend to be more likely to fall within one of the criteria to submit a tax return (e.g. more than £100k income) and don't have the time/inclination to submit it themselves. I tend to offer more basic financial planning (not investment) advice to them and can identify additional reliefs too such as on uniform cleaning.

In the UK, visitors from outside the EU can reclaim VAT on their purchases at the airport.

Can UK tourists do the same in countries like America/Australia/elsewhere? (Obviously not your field, but just wondering if you know of it).

Follow up; if you brought goods in from abroad in person, would import VAT and duty be due if you were looking to sell them?

[I'm not looking to do this, was just discussing this with a friend last night]

Original Poster3 points·1 year ago

You can reclaim the sales tax incurred outside of the EU if you plan on bringing it home. However, legally you must declare it when you return and pay import VAT and duties.

Note: I'm answering the quick ones now, long ones at lunch :)


Can UK tourists do the same in countries like America/Australia/elsewhere? (Obviously not your field, but just wondering if you know of it).

Many countries with sales tax offer sales tax refunds for tourists! For the U.S. that's up to individual states, but certainly everywhere else that likes to attract tourists will generally have some sort of scheme.

Follow up; if you brought goods in from abroad in person, would import VAT and duty be due if you were looking to sell them?

Duty: yes - duty-free limits apply only to personal use VAT: yes - as if you acquired them in the UK

Thanks pflurklurk!

Comment deleted1 year ago(1 child)
Original Poster1 point·1 year ago

This is probably more of a personal finance question than accounting/tax question. I can't help with investment advice sorry.

What would the main differences be between working in industry, compared to practise? Also, which do you prefer?

Original Poster3 points·1 year ago

With practice you are focused on technical solutions. In industry it is more about implementation and commerciality. I honestly believe moving in house was the best decision for my career. I don't think I would work with a partner who hasn't worked in house now because they will give out advice with no clue if it can actually be implemented. Clients want solutions that can work rather than generic ideas.

In-house also pays more and no timesheets (Wohoo!)

How hard is CTA? I'm doing the ATT-CTA pathway atm.

Original Poster1 point·1 year ago

Check my other replies :)

Any pros cons to filing micro accounts over abv? I rarely see micro filings yet often the company is eligible to.

How do you handle, or used to handle the long 50+ hour weeks and would you still tell yourself Bigfour was worth it to your younger self.

How do you deal with the pressures of clients who actively seek evasion tactics with their tax, is it something that big accountancy firms 'deal' with and or protect themselves with being strict at the risk of losing the client.

Original Poster1 point·1 year ago

Clients prefer to disclose as little as possible to keep costs down and privacy up so abbreviated accounts preferred.

I work in tax rather than audit so I never dealt with those hours ;)

You do get clients who want to pay nothing or act certain ways. It's a case of filtering who you accept. There are money laundering obligations too. I don't think it's much of an issue for the big four these days either. There are specialist tax planning advisors who push the boat out with tax avoidance schemes. Not saying the Big Four don't but it attracts bad publicity. I personally don't agree with extreme tax planning or contrived structures.

How much do you earn and what was your salary progression going through big4 and then into industry

Original Poster5 points·1 year ago

I'm definitely not mentioning my personal salary haha.

Salary depended on location. Graduate in North West was around £21k seven years ago. South was around £7k more. Qualified salary was around £42k. You get materially more when you move in-house. Senior manager would expect to earn around £70-80k basic plus car, pension, bonus.

Tax pays more than finance/audit - guaranteed. There are usually more rings to moving up the finance chain too. I joined in house at a higher level than my finance colleagues who were my age.

Well that's boring

Would also like to know this as currently studying accounting.

check out glassdoor instead

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