This post is intended to be a one stop aggregate of content related to the CCNA R&S, new users are encouraged to look through this post before asking these common post topics. Because I'm lazy I'll be copy and pasting relevant sections from other posts as needed :)
No, at best you'll get basic information but you'll be missing topics, reading about topics you don't need to, and could generally not learn a topic well enough. It isn't worth trying to save money since failing the exam is much more expensive than some new books.
Saying that some video courses are still worth while, CBT nuggets for example has plenty of CCNA related series such as their CCNA packet capture course that is still good info though out of date.
You can occasionally save some $$$ by buying a discount voucher, a discount voucher is a voucher that is expiring sooner than a ordinary voucher, the less time left the more it is discounted. For example a CCNA voucher with 3 days left might get 50% off.
I have used these sites before and they work well.
CCNA 2.0 is being retired on the following dates:
100-101 ICND1 Last day to test August 20, 2016
200-101 ICND2 Last day to test September 24, 2016
200-120 CCNA Last day to test August 20, 2016
A common misconception is that ICND1 is a prerequisite for the CCNA, it is not. Rather the ICND1 earns the CCENT certification and the CCENT is the prerequisite for the CCNA. This distinction means that you can write the 3.0 ICND2 exam even if you have passed the ICND1 2.0 exam.
100-105 - ICND1 3.0
Here is a summary of the changes in the new version:
RIP is now the sole routing protocol in this exam.
IPv6 Dual Stack was removed in favour of transition techologies
CEF has been removed from the exam.
High level knowledge of Firewalls, Access Points, and Wireless Controllers
Awareness of Collapsed Core architecture
Configure and verify IPv6 SLAAC
IPv6 Anycast addresses
Knowledge of LLDP
Troubleshooting DNS and DHCP related connectivity issues
200-105 - ICND2 3.0
200-125 - CCNAX 3.0
All in all some pretty fair additions and only a couple questionable removals.
The short answer is....no, probably not.
Generally speaking the composite is only for the experienced network professionals who are used to certification exams. It is really meant for convenient switching to the R&S track from say Juniper. Why not take it? It's just considered to be a much more difficult exam because:
It doubles the number of topics you can be tested on, this makes it so you must have mastered everything in the CCNA since it is fair game. This also makes repeat attempts harder since the question pool is large enough that if you do badly on say IP Services, you might instead get a security focus the next time. You have a smaller margin of error: with ICND1 and 2 you can get say...10 questions wrong to pass with the minimum score so you can get 20 questions wrong and still be a CCNA. With the composite you can only get 10 wrong before failing
There is less padding questions, icnd1 may also you 10 subnetting questions but the composite may just ask a couple and move on the next topic. This makes things harder since your more likely to hit a hard question rather than get a few easier ones.
Cisco assumes your a network professional so they may hit harder than with the other exams. Based on my own observations from watching this sub and talking to people, I would say a junior has about a 90% fail rate for the composite and it typically takes them about 3 tries to pass it. Incidentally they also tend to be bitter with Cisco after paying for so many failed exams. Long story short, it isn't worth it, I should also point out that you get the same CCNA no matter what path you take. The only difference is that with the two exam method you get the CCENT as well, which means you can get up to two kitty gifs!
Books by Odom and Lammle remain our recommendations for this CCNA version, you should read both to get both perspectives on topics. Generally Odom is considered to be more dry and technical and Lammle is more readable and approachable.
There are two main options for a home lab - physical and virtual. You can also mix and match as needed.
Because of the new version it is recommended to try to use IOS 15 in all your physical gear so you can utilize the modern features that IOS brings to the table. The router models don't matter all that much since features at the CCNA and CCNP level are mostly the same, you also don't need to worry about serial modules nearly as much because serial is a very small topic now.
Model numbers matter with switches though, you should aim to get 3 or 4 Cisco 3560 switches so your lab will last you well past your CCNA R&S studies, though you can pick up a some L2 Cisco 2960 switches if need be.
For virtual you have 3 main options
PT 7.0 is out now and can be gotten for free from Cisco.
Here is a blog post I wrote about setting it up end to end:
Here is the post I did about VIRL:
Remember there is no back button so always read the question until you fully understand what it is asking you and you know what technology it is testing you on before answering.
If you can't think of an answer within a minute consider picking the best answer and moving on. You are unlikely to correctly figure out the question after thinking about it for another minute and will likely talk yourself into a wrong answer. You don't have a ton of time in the exam!
For people with a bit more IT experience, remember the context and level of the exam. There are many solutions to problems in the real world and at the end of the day the CCNA doesn't get too deep into topics. Keep the exam topics in mind when answering a question...for example if Cisco asks what device would run BGP? Then the answer would be a router even though most devices can support BGP these days from hosts to servers to firewalls etc. The reason why is the CCNA v3.0 only teaches about basic eBGP on a router so Cisco isn't going to expect you to know that Windows Server can do BGP.
People also have a lot of issues getting used to the concept of the best answer. Like the BGP scenario above you have to keep the context of the question in mind, a router can indeed use a switch module to act like a switch and a L3 switch can act like a router etc but if they ask what device is best for switching then it will be a switch.
The "Cisco Answer" is something that keeps popping up over and over, and in my opinion is drastically overblown and misunderstood in most cases. Basically it is the claim that Cisco wants you to answer the question their way as opposed to the industry correct answer. Generally this seems to be feed from the pitfalls I mentioned above:
An example of an old Cisco answer was back when other vendors first started supporting CDP and if you were asked if CDP only ran on Cisco you had to decide if Cisco was expecting you to know that polycom phones could do CDP. But generally those types of questions are gone in the R&S track at least (I'm told the wireless track needs more time in the oven)
The other place it comes from is when you are multi vendor and/or have a higher knowledge/experience level then the exam your writing. A simple example might be if they asked you how many link state routing protocols are supported by Cisco, a CCNA will probably say 1, whereas a more advanced candidate may answer 2. But considering CCNA doesn't mention IS-IS then 1 would be the CCNA correct answer. The trick is you have to keep your exam level in mind as your writing it.
Finally there is the obvious actual Cisco answer where if they asked you what OSPF's Administrative Distances is? Now on Cisco it is 110/110/110, on Juniper it is 10/150, and on HPE it is 10/150/150. So in this case they are looking for the Cisco right answer but that only really can affect you if you are multi-vendor.
Sim's generally have support for the
? but it can be limited if Cisco decides to remove them to make sure you know how to do a task or if they simply just don't fully implement them since the sim is just a flash animation they have to program. It is also worth noting that even if Cisco does give you full functionality, you would still need to know the full commands since Cisco can just straight up ask you syntax questions.
The Boson practice tests are highly regarded and tend to be of similar difficulty or more difficult than the actual exam.
I'll try to keep this updated as they pop up but here is the current posts that are cover the new topics
With the exam cutoff looming there have been a ton of questions lately about if people should take the composite exam. The short answer is....no, probably not.
Generally speaking the composite is only for the experienced network professionals who are used to certification exams. It is really meant for convenient switching to the R&S track from say Juniper.
Why not take it? It's just considered to be a much more difficult exam because:
It doubles the number of topics you can be tested on, this makes it so you must have mastered everything in the CCNA since it is fair game. This also makes repeat attempts harder since the question pool is large enough that if you do badly on say IP Services, you might instead get a security focus the next time.
You have a smaller margin of error: with ICND1 and 2 you can get say...10 questions wrong to pass with the minimum score so you can get 20 questions wrong and still be a CCNA. With the composite you can only get 10 wrong before failing
There is less padding questions, icnd1 may also you 10 subnetting questions but the composite may just ask a couple and move on the next topic. This makes things harder since your more likely to hit a hard question rather than get a few easier ones.
Cisco assumes your a network professional so they may hit harder than with the other exams.
Based on my own observations from watching this sub and talking to people, I would say a junior has about a 90% fail rate for the composite and it typically takes them about 3 tries to pass it. Incidentally they also tend to be bitter with Cisco after paying for so many failed exams. Long story short, it isn't worth it, I should also point out that you get the same CCNA no matter what path you take. The only difference is that with the two exam method you get the CCENT as well, which means you can get up to two kitty gifs!
Passed 210-255 SECOPS yesterday and received an email this morning containing notification my CSCO profile was updated with my Cert! Excited!
I got vouchers for the program and studied the online resource, the Official Study Guide, the 2 main NIST PDFs containing CSIRT guidelines.
Not sure what to do next. I initially planned to get CCNA:R&S certified so I may do that. Then climb that track.. since there inst a CCNP: Cyber Ops. Right now I wanna find a job in Networking/Security. I enjoy the general sysadmin position I have now, but want to focus on those things.
Anywho, I just wanted to share! Thanks for reading. Have a great day!
I need to get some practise in and wondered what other people do when working on a lab.
I've got PT and have access to the full CCNA R&S course which comes with PT labs. Do I just work through them repeatedly or are there other pre-built labs?
Alternatively (which I do like doing), do people just build their own labs and experiment?
Network Fundamentals : 40%
LAN Switching Fundamentals : 73%
Routing Fundamentals : 88%
WAN Technologies : 57%
Infrastructure Services : 71%
Infrastructure Security : 63%
Infrastructure Management : 71%
First of all HOW DID I PASS OMG!!!!!!!
Sources that i used were the lammle book and other free practice testing websites
About the test i was not prepared about the entire time management. I started to panic at my first simlet taking about 25 mins. I got the hang of the format as i went on. I also want to add THIS WAS MY FIRST ATTEMPT IN ANY CERTIFICATION!!! I only have 1 year of IT experience from going to university. I found this subreddit a bit later than i should have but thank you for all of your tips. If you have any questions feel free to ask
EDIT: Also i would like to add is what do i do now. The sheet said i have to wait 10 days. Is the passing grade final or should i panic?
Hello, i got an old Cisco 1841 router, and a cisco catalyst 2950 and thought about you could monitor the network traffic on a vlan, and have a monitoring software or the console of the router showing the network traffic in detail.
Is this possible? And how can i maybe do it?
Curious if I'm assigning a vlan to a port (or is it assigning a port to a vlan) what happens if i don't use
switchport mode access
but instead skip it and go to
switchport access vlan <id>
Couldn't believe I passed on my first try after all of the stuff I've read about the exam. Fun part is it didn't show me the score before the survey either so I was sure I failed. Lucked out with my exam as I have a limited one day of hands on troubleshooting with an ASA and that was all IPSec VPN problems. I was able to supplement a lot from my Security experience and Palo experience.
Used Boson exams and UCertify to study.
Doesn't make since unless the question is like whats the analysis device called to verify ACLS
Hello everyone, I would like some clarification about how routers summarize routes, and what is the best way to build a network using routing protocols like EIGRP.
Once I built the network, I was able to ping from PC1 to PC3, but pings from PC2 failed when going to s1/1 on router 3 because of a route to a null interface on R2. I was able to resolve this issue by disabling auto-summary on R2.
Could someone enlighten me about how auto-summary behaves specifically? Why was the R2 branch of the network the one that failed and not the R1 branch? Also, was the way I resolved this issue in line with cisco best practices? Should I disable auto-summary on all the routers, or just do it in a way that makes the network work? How would I decide?
Thank you very much.
Hi guys, hope you’re all doing good with your studies.
This is a long text, and so it's only for those who really feel torn between the two books and wouldn't mind reading a thousand words to have a clear idea about them. (For the rest of the text, occasionally I'll refer to Odom's book as OCG, and Lammle's book as LSG.)
tl;dr Both books have their pros or cons. Lammle is being a bit fast and too much early-on with his use of terminology. However he is much better with the use of the language in general, that his explanations are far smoother and illustrated with real-world metaphors. His book also contains more exercises with superior quality. Odom, on the other hand, although dry with his language, presents the information in the most concise, structured and direct way possible. He builds up the terminology well that you don't feel lost with unknown words. The overall chapter structure is also superior and logical in OCG, in my opinion.
First off, this is not a rant about Lammle's Study Guide. It's a great book in some aspects and better than Odom's OCG in some others. However, if you're a beginner and have none to little knowledge in network, then this book is not for you. On the other hand, if you are self-studying, on budget and don't have many materials for practice, LSG will support you with a richer content -- except for practice tests, which OCG provides you with.
I've done an extensive research on both books before starting my CCENT journey (and just so you know -- I still didn't complete either books), and surprisingly enough many people preferred LSG as the main study material. This is surprising because OCG is the 'official' guide, so you'd expect it to be a lot more preferred. This might be something special to this sub, too; I'm not sure. But Lammle already has so many readers anyway.
Here's the problem with LSG: it's not as beginner-level as it claims to be. Todd clearly says in the beginning of the book that "he assumes the reader has some basic network knowledge", however that basic is almost like CCENT-level basic, in all honesty.
I delved into LSG after spending about 300 pages on OCG (because I heard that the subnetting was handled better in LSG and so I wanted to study with LSG for a while). The first notable thing is how different the content structure is. OCG starts with the very basic network fundamentals and provides some overall explanation on layered architecture and AFTER THEN goes into L2 switches with Part 2, and stays within the realm of Layer 2 until far later, when he teaches about subnetting and IPv4. There is some clear coherence, and you barely see the mention of concepts from future chapters, to an extent where it sometimes becomes frustrating (don't get me wrong -- it's a good thing!). For example, so many times there were sections in which I expected Odom to talk about routers or at least L3 switches, but he persistently avoided mentioning them until the more-relevant chapters. (By the way, I knew a bit about these devices because I have taken a Computer Networking class, although it was L7-oriented.)
Lammle, on the other hand, starts big with a whole “Internetworking” chapter, explaining things in an “expanding network” metaphor. I was literally shocked when I saw the mention of concepts like broadcast domain, path selection, WAN, ARP, etc., that much early on. I mean, he is not going into much details or anything, but he is not providing a single sentence on these terms either. For example, when Odom has to spit out something before the relevant chapter comes, he does it only respectfully and briefly tells what that thing is or he just mentions the relevant parts of it to that particular chapter, so you don’t feel like you skipped some information before getting there. Lammle, on the other hand, uses relatively advanced terms early on, without letting the reader know about what they actually are. Let me just copy a small block from the book to explain how that goes:
“I’ll tell you all about the various layers later in this chapter, but for now, it’s helpful to think of routers as layer 3 switches. Unlike plain-vanilla layer 2 switches, which forward or filter frames, routers (layer 3 switches) use logical addressing and provide an important capacity called packet switching. Routers can also provide packet filtering via access lists,and when routers connect two or more networks together and use logical addressing (IP or IPv6), you then have an internetwork. Finally, routers use a routing table, which is essentially a map of the internetwork, to make best path selections for getting data to its proper destination and properly forward packets to remote networks.”
Whoa... Now hold on a second. What is a layer 2 switch, let alone a layer 3 one? I mean, what is a layer, after all? And while you're at it, what is a frame? What does it mean to forward a frame, or to filter it? What is logical addressing? Packets? Packet filtering? Access lists?
This is from page 7. If somebody who had no prior network knowledge read this and didn’t get lost, give that guy his cert already. If I started out with LSG (and had no earlier network knowledge), I’d definitely give up at this particular moment of not understanding a dozen of words in a paragraph. It doesn’t make sense explaining L3 switches to somebody who has no idea what a layer is, and even then when that person doesn't even know what a traditional switch does. Sure he sometimes ensures you to not worry about the terminology for that particular moment, but that happens quite often and after some time it gets frustrating. Like, couldn’t you organize these better so that I could understand things without actually waiting for them to be revealed at some point? IMO that’s where OCG excels. I don't remember myself referring to an unknown concept in the glossary or on the internet, and Odom himself has always been pretty clear with his choice of words. Lammle’s poor organization reflects to entire book, too, as such you learn about Layer 2 switches at Chapter 10 and before then he teaches you more advanced concepts like IPv4 and subnetting. I’m sure he had a good reason for doing it, and hell, it's his own book and his own way. But in my opinion, it’s absolutely not beginner-friendly.
Another obvious thing LSG lacks is the amount of information. Considering the size of the books, Odom’s ICND1 book only is as big as Lammle’s ICND1 + ICND2. I didn’t complete the books so I cannot say if this later on results in a problem; putting too much information could be as bad as revealing a little, if it's redundant. Nonetheless, it’s hard to wrap my head around the huge difference in the number of pages. Psychologically I'd feel as if I'm missing something if I read LSG only.
Now, on to the things LSG does better. The most obvious one will be the language; Lammle prefers a smooth and friendly language, while Odom is as dry as one can get. Some might prefer the latter one though, as the fun narrative Lammle presents sometimes becomes a distraction. Also Lammle tries to illustrate things with real-life metaphors, while Odom stays within the kingdom of network and try to be as direct as possible. Of course each to their own. but for me Lammle does it better, as sometimes the amount of information is too much to digest with a direct approach; so he smoothing things makes it easier to proceed. It's also possible to go faster with Lammle; I could only finish one chapter per day with Odom since the information was quite dense and required a lot of processing. With Lammle that was 3 chapters per day, and note that LSG chapters double (sometimes triple) OCG chapters in the number of pages. So that means that I was at least 600% faster with LSG.
Another thing the LSG is better about is the richness of the content. Here I don’t mean the amount of information itself, but rather the exercises that come along with it. I find the post-chapter summaries and exercises better with LSG, and there seems to be more effort put in creating them. The review questions after each chapter also surpass the OCG’s pre-chapter quizzes, both in quality and quantity. So, for those who are self-studying, Lammle seems to have done a much better job than Odom with providing us with content.
Labs – both books fail in this one. And with this I mean the digital labs. Otherwise Lammle’s written and hands-on labs are quite decent for the purpose of helping you lock the information in your brain. Odom simply has no written labs, and the lab simulator that comes along is just a demo, so you have to pay extra to get the full version. Sure you wouldn’t want to do that when there exists the Packet Tracer (and perhaps as another alternative, Boson’s NetSim). The fact that both books do a bad job with their digital simulators should be a reason enough for you to get yourself familiarized with the Packet Tracer, and if possible, get some decent labs using Udemy, etc. to use with the PT.
Lastly, the authors did a great job with how they named their book. Lammle’s book really does stand out as a “Study Guide” with all the methods and exercises, while Odom seems to strive to get you the all the available information in the best structured way, so that you could get the cert with his “Cert Guide”. For the very reason I don't believe Lammle's Study Guide being entirely a beginner's book, I recommend you to kick off with Odom's Official Cert Guide, and if you have prior network knowledge, chase yourself down with LSG later on. If you don't have a prior network knowledge, wait until you finish the OCG before jumping into LSG, as the books are structured differently so you might get confused with the way they progress.
p.s. This post is not about the practice tests and it’s not that I got my own cert, so I’d rather not write any detailed opinions on these. To stay relevant, though, the Pearson practice exams that come with OCG don’t seem to help me much. I personally find them to be way too easy, and some people in this sub who already got their certs confirmed this. I don’t know about Lammle’s practice tests, since I haven’t tried them myself (they should be purchased separately). Also please, please, please, do your own research. This post is all opinion, each book has its own audience, so it's up to you to see which one you belong.
Hope you all succeed your exams folks!
Got an email about this today. Curious to see if this new version runs any better. Got a 10% off coupon code too.
Quick question - this might have been asked by a hundredth times already; after passing the CCENT, are you considered as certified for 3 years? and then if you continue on and passed the CCNA, will it going to be added 1 year on the timeline of you being Certified? Is it the same as CompTIA?
For example, if I passed my CCENT today, am I certified for the next 3 years? Then, if I passed my CCNA somewhere this year (2018) or next year (2019), am I going to receive an additional 1 year to be considered as certified (2022 or 2023)?
Title says most of it, but basically they want us trained up on ccna ASAP, they said find a class/boot camp, and we'll send you to it.
Gotta be in the states, Texas will make it easier to sell to them, but realistically, any place would probably work.
I ask here because I started googling and there's a thousand of them, and we want the best!
Any input is GREATLY appreciated!
Not sure exactly what im looking for, i took the CCENT few weeks back and past so i'm assuming the CCNA is similar. there is 1 question i wanna ask but idk what i can and can't say. I've been looking and studying the objectives like crazy . there is alot of configure objectives this time around, is there more Sims in the CCNA exam? Are the sims also the same format? If any of this is not allowed let me know.
I know other people are in the same boat as me so I wanted to share my experience so others can draw from it as well.
I have 0 background experience in IT, my work history has been in healthcare. I decided that I wanted a change and chose to pursue the CCNA certification and my goal was to work in IT. I studied for the ICND1 and passed July 31st. After I passed I updated my resume and started to put out applications to different job postings that I thought I had a realistic shot at at least landing an interview.
Surprisingly enough I was able to land two interviews at two different companies. The first interview was with a tech-oriented company in my area for a Level 1 help-desk support position. I was interviewed by two gentlemen who did not seem to be interested in hiring me at all. They asked me several questions, talked about the possibility of doing a paid internship but it seemed like they really wanted someone with experience. I never heard back from them. I was disappointed because I knew I could've interviewed better but it seemed like their mind was made up before the interview even had a chance to get going.
I got back home and continued to put more applications. I saw a job posting for a LAN/WAN support analyst that I was sure I was under-qualified for but saw that they had CCENT certification under the section of preferred qualifications so I gave it a shot. The company called me back within a few days and set me up with an interview with two IT managers.
This interview had the entire opposite vibe from the first one. I was asked basic interview questions, a few technical questions (some that I even did not know the answer too) and they told me more about the company, the position and the training involved. The next day I was called back, asked if I was still interested and given a formal offer. I start in two weeks.
I wanted to share my experience because I know there are others out there wondering if the CCENT will get you a job. The job I have gotten may not be the most sought after or the highest paying (it's more than my current job in the healthcare field) but it's a foot in the door and a start in the IT field. So for those who are studying and looking for a little motivation, I hope you are able to draw from my experience and use it to power you through your studies.
Watched cbt nuggets, did some David bombal packet tracer labs, used netsim and exsim from boson and read the Todd lammle book.
Test was very simple after using the boson prep material.
If you have the cash at the very least get exsim. Netsim is great for nailing down the show* commands
I finally passed it in my 3rd attempt. The third time really was a charm.
SCORE BREAKDOWN Network Fundamentals : 83% LAN Switching Fundamentals : 94% Routing Fundamentals : 93% Infrastructure Services : 89% Infrastructure Maintenance : 75%
Resources that I used * Lammle Book * Odom Book * CeeJayII YouTube Channel * Last but not least, r/ccna
Onto the CCNA!
I just got the CCENT Exsim tests. I have been doing okay with 75% average on the 2 tests I have taken so far. I keep seeing on this sub, that the Boson tests are much harder than the actual exam. Is this true for most who have passed and used Exsim?
I would like to check something with you :
Here is the diagram shown in the video called "STP examples" : https://postimg.cc/image/i4ev3y7up/
I think Ross made a mistake here :
The root port for the s3560 switch is G0/2 (and not G0/1) because the choice is based on the lowest NEIGHBOR internal port number (so g0/1 of 2960-1 is the lowest here).
Do you agree with me or not ?
I know this is probably explained and I’m just not the brightest, but passing both the ICND1 and then Passing the ICND2 will award you with the CCNA certification, correct? But just passing ICND1 will award you with the CCENT certification? Thank you to whoever can clarify for me, I’ve been studying material for the CCNA want to know the best path
I saw a senior network guy use this command last week when we were trying to determine which access switches were using a particular vlan. This router has 10 access switches (all in VTP client and this router is the server) attached but the only result was interface port channel 17 (a trunk). Can someone explain how this command shows evidence of this particular vlan being used on that switch;
router#sh spanning-tree vlan 713
Spanning tree enabled protocol rstp
Root ID Priority 8905
This bridge is the root
Hello Time 2 sec Max Age 20 sec Forward Delay 15 sec
Bridge ID Priority 8905 (priority 8192 sys-id-ext 713)
Hello Time 2 sec Max Age 20 sec Forward Delay 15 sec
Aging Time 300 sec
Interface Role Sts Cost Prio.Nbr Type
------------------- ---- --- --------- -------- --------------------------------
Po17 Desg FWD 1 128.2577 P2p
Thanks in advance.
The Odom CCENT book says that an Ethernet frame is the Preamble (7 bytes), Start Frame Delimiter (1 byte), Destination Mac Address (6 bytes), Source Mac Address (6 bytes), Type (2 bytes) Data+Pad (46-1500 bytes) and the Frame Check Sequence (4 bytes). The book also says that a FTP header is 20 bytes and a UDP header is 8 bytes.
My question is, where does the FTP or UDP header go inside the Ethernet frame? Does it go inside the data portion? It seems like it would have to. Thank you for all of your help.