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Posted byMeow 🐈🐈Meow 🐱🐱 Meow Meow🍺🐈🐱Meow A+!2 years ago
ArchivedStickied post

Hi all,

This post is intended to be a one stop aggregate of content related to the CCNA R&S, new users are encouraged to look through this post before asking these common post topics. Because I'm lazy I'll be copy and pasting relevant sections from other posts as needed :)

Can I use older versions of the study material?

No, at best you'll get basic information but you'll be missing topics, reading about topics you don't need to, and could generally not learn a topic well enough. It isn't worth trying to save money since failing the exam is much more expensive than some new books.

Saying that some video courses are still worth while, CBT nuggets for example has plenty of CCNA related series such as their CCNA packet capture course that is still good info though out of date.


Discount Exams

You can occasionally save some $$$ by buying a discount voucher, a discount voucher is a voucher that is expiring sooner than a ordinary voucher, the less time left the more it is discounted. For example a CCNA voucher with 3 days left might get 50% off.

I have used these sites before and they work well.

www.itexamvouchers.com or www.getcertified4less.com

The Exam Change

CCNA 2.0 is being retired on the following dates:

100-101 ICND1 Last day to test August 20, 2016

200-101 ICND2 Last day to test September 24, 2016

200-120 CCNA Last day to test August 20, 2016

A common misconception is that ICND1 is a prerequisite for the CCNA, it is not. Rather the ICND1 earns the CCENT certification and the CCENT is the prerequisite for the CCNA. This distinction means that you can write the 3.0 ICND2 exam even if you have passed the ICND1 2.0 exam.

Exam topics

100-105 - ICND1 3.0

ICND1 Exam topics

Here is a summary of the changes in the new version:

Removed:

  • RIP is now the sole routing protocol in this exam.

  • IPv6 Dual Stack was removed in favour of transition techologies

  • CEF has been removed from the exam.

Added:

  • High level knowledge of Firewalls, Access Points, and Wireless Controllers

  • Awareness of Collapsed Core architecture

  • Configure and verify IPv6 SLAAC

  • IPv6 Anycast addresses

  • Knowledge of LLDP

  • Troubleshooting DNS and DHCP related connectivity issues

  • Understanding Syslog

  • Device management


200-105 - ICND2 3.0

ICND2 Exam topics

Removed:

  • Frame-Relay (HOORAY!)
  • VRRP and GLBP (BOO!)

Added:

  • Knowledge of IWAN
  • Basic eBGP
  • VPNs: DMVPN, Site to Site, Client VPNs
  • Understanding the Cloud
  • Understanding SDN
  • Using APIC-EM's Path Trace application
  • QoS

200-125 - CCNAX 3.0

Composite 3.0 Exam topics

All in all some pretty fair additions and only a couple questionable removals.

Should you take the composite exam?

The short answer is....no, probably not.

Generally speaking the composite is only for the experienced network professionals who are used to certification exams. It is really meant for convenient switching to the R&S track from say Juniper. Why not take it? It's just considered to be a much more difficult exam because:

It doubles the number of topics you can be tested on, this makes it so you must have mastered everything in the CCNA since it is fair game. This also makes repeat attempts harder since the question pool is large enough that if you do badly on say IP Services, you might instead get a security focus the next time. You have a smaller margin of error: with ICND1 and 2 you can get say...10 questions wrong to pass with the minimum score so you can get 20 questions wrong and still be a CCNA. With the composite you can only get 10 wrong before failing

There is less padding questions, icnd1 may also you 10 subnetting questions but the composite may just ask a couple and move on the next topic. This makes things harder since your more likely to hit a hard question rather than get a few easier ones.

Cisco assumes your a network professional so they may hit harder than with the other exams. Based on my own observations from watching this sub and talking to people, I would say a junior has about a 90% fail rate for the composite and it typically takes them about 3 tries to pass it. Incidentally they also tend to be bitter with Cisco after paying for so many failed exams. Long story short, it isn't worth it, I should also point out that you get the same CCNA no matter what path you take. The only difference is that with the two exam method you get the CCENT as well, which means you can get up to two kitty gifs!

Reading List

Books by Odom and Lammle remain our recommendations for this CCNA version, you should read both to get both perspectives on topics. Generally Odom is considered to be more dry and technical and Lammle is more readable and approachable.

Home Lab

There are two main options for a home lab - physical and virtual. You can also mix and match as needed.

Because of the new version it is recommended to try to use IOS 15 in all your physical gear so you can utilize the modern features that IOS brings to the table. The router models don't matter all that much since features at the CCNA and CCNP level are mostly the same, you also don't need to worry about serial modules nearly as much because serial is a very small topic now.

Model numbers matter with switches though, you should aim to get 3 or 4 Cisco 3560 switches so your lab will last you well past your CCNA R&S studies, though you can pick up a some L2 Cisco 2960 switches if need be.

For virtual you have 3 main options

  • Packet Tracer - a mostly functional emulation tool that meets most of the CCNA requirements, it requires very little resources or technical knowledge but only supports just enough IOS features for you to pass the CCNA.

PT 7.0 is out now and can be gotten for free from Cisco.

  • GNS3 - a functional solution that runs real IOS images, the downside is you need to get your hand on IOS images. It also doesn't have native support for most L2 features.

Here is a blog post I wrote about setting it up end to end:

Mastering GNS3

  • VIRL - this is the most resource heavy option but its benefit is that Cisco provides IOS images to you.

Here is the post I did about VIRL:

Mastering VIRL

Exam Tips

Remember there is no back button so always read the question until you fully understand what it is asking you and you know what technology it is testing you on before answering.

If you can't think of an answer within a minute consider picking the best answer and moving on. You are unlikely to correctly figure out the question after thinking about it for another minute and will likely talk yourself into a wrong answer. You don't have a ton of time in the exam!

For people with a bit more IT experience, remember the context and level of the exam. There are many solutions to problems in the real world and at the end of the day the CCNA doesn't get too deep into topics. Keep the exam topics in mind when answering a question...for example if Cisco asks what device would run BGP? Then the answer would be a router even though most devices can support BGP these days from hosts to servers to firewalls etc. The reason why is the CCNA v3.0 only teaches about basic eBGP on a router so Cisco isn't going to expect you to know that Windows Server can do BGP.

The Best Answer

People also have a lot of issues getting used to the concept of the best answer. Like the BGP scenario above you have to keep the context of the question in mind, a router can indeed use a switch module to act like a switch and a L3 switch can act like a router etc but if they ask what device is best for switching then it will be a switch.

The Cisco Answer

The "Cisco Answer" is something that keeps popping up over and over, and in my opinion is drastically overblown and misunderstood in most cases. Basically it is the claim that Cisco wants you to answer the question their way as opposed to the industry correct answer. Generally this seems to be feed from the pitfalls I mentioned above:

An example of an old Cisco answer was back when other vendors first started supporting CDP and if you were asked if CDP only ran on Cisco you had to decide if Cisco was expecting you to know that polycom phones could do CDP. But generally those types of questions are gone in the R&S track at least (I'm told the wireless track needs more time in the oven)

The other place it comes from is when you are multi vendor and/or have a higher knowledge/experience level then the exam your writing. A simple example might be if they asked you how many link state routing protocols are supported by Cisco, a CCNA will probably say 1, whereas a more advanced candidate may answer 2. But considering CCNA doesn't mention IS-IS then 1 would be the CCNA correct answer. The trick is you have to keep your exam level in mind as your writing it.

Finally there is the obvious actual Cisco answer where if they asked you what OSPF's Administrative Distances is? Now on Cisco it is 110/110/110, on Juniper it is 10/150, and on HPE it is 10/150/150. So in this case they are looking for the Cisco right answer but that only really can affect you if you are multi-vendor.

Question Marks and Tab

Sim's generally have support for the tab and ? but it can be limited if Cisco decides to remove them to make sure you know how to do a task or if they simply just don't fully implement them since the sim is just a flash animation they have to program. It is also worth noting that even if Cisco does give you full functionality, you would still need to know the full commands since Cisco can just straight up ask you syntax questions.

Practice Tests

The Boson practice tests are highly regarded and tend to be of similar difficulty or more difficult than the actual exam.

New topic posts

I'll try to keep this updated as they pop up but here is the current posts that are cover the new topics

What is Metro Ethernet

What is MPLS as a WAN Service

What is BGP?

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87 comments
48
Posted byMeow 🐈🐈Meow 🐱🐱 Meow Meow🍺🐈🐱Meow A+!2 years ago
ArchivedStickied post

Hi all,

With the exam cutoff looming there have been a ton of questions lately about if people should take the composite exam. The short answer is....no, probably not.

Generally speaking the composite is only for the experienced network professionals who are used to certification exams. It is really meant for convenient switching to the R&S track from say Juniper.

Why not take it? It's just considered to be a much more difficult exam because:

  • It doubles the number of topics you can be tested on, this makes it so you must have mastered everything in the CCNA since it is fair game. This also makes repeat attempts harder since the question pool is large enough that if you do badly on say IP Services, you might instead get a security focus the next time.

  • You have a smaller margin of error: with ICND1 and 2 you can get say...10 questions wrong to pass with the minimum score so you can get 20 questions wrong and still be a CCNA. With the composite you can only get 10 wrong before failing

  • There is less padding questions, icnd1 may also you 10 subnetting questions but the composite may just ask a couple and move on the next topic. This makes things harder since your more likely to hit a hard question rather than get a few easier ones.

  • Cisco assumes your a network professional so they may hit harder than with the other exams.

Based on my own observations from watching this sub and talking to people, I would say a junior has about a 90% fail rate for the composite and it typically takes them about 3 tries to pass it. Incidentally they also tend to be bitter with Cisco after paying for so many failed exams. Long story short, it isn't worth it, I should also point out that you get the same CCNA no matter what path you take. The only difference is that with the two exam method you get the CCENT as well, which means you can get up to two kitty gifs!

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Hello everyone.

This is my first post and I hope this isn't too off topic for this subreddit, but I just had a few questions about what steps should be taken after obtaining the CCNA certification. Is it wise to diversify yourself among the Associate Level Cisco Certifications or is it better to go vertically up the scale with the goal of obtaining the Professional and Expert level certs? I guess I'm just looking from some advice from some true networking professionals about the best way to succeed in the industry and how to best utilize the certification process to reach my personal goals. For instance, if I have the long term goal of obtaining the CCIE Security Certificate and becoming a Network Security Engineer would it have been a waste of my time and money to have obtained the CCNA R&S? Any insight or help anyone could offer would be greatly appreciated.

Side note, this subreddit is pretty awesome. Seeing all the success stories that pop up on here keep my hope alive. I look forward to posting my exam results in the next month or so!

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Is there a way to make a custom exam that is just 1-3 simlets and nothing else? or maybe 5 normal questions and a sim?

I am looking for a way to take good practice quizzes with less time invested in the middle of the day.

As a side note, does anyone know of any good android quiz apps that are accurate and worth using?

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What exactly does this mean? for example when we talk about exposing a server directly to the internet what does that mean?

1) Does that mean static nat or port forwarding is being used?

2) which then leads me to wonder, are servers always behind routers in a private network? I saw something saying it was possible to get a t1 line and directly connect it to your server.

3) is it possible for a router to run two types of nat at the same time? For example, could I have a static nat for servers and pat for my host? I am assuming this is possible given how DMZ's work.

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0

Been banging my head on the wall all afternoon about how to convert my 172.20.0.0 / 24 network on over to IPv6. Three routers all configured with EGRIP. One of the three (main router) has two servers hanging off of it (TFTP, web, and other services). I have a bunch of vlans implemented all over the network as well other configurations (multi- location network).

I have tried both configuring the server for DCHPv6 as well as using the main router as the DHCP server. I have to be missing something. I have searched through my portable command guide, youtube, and good ol google for a "how-to" if you will with no luck.

Any suggestions?

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Posted bySecurity+23 hours ago

I used OCG, Lammle, Boson, CBT, and PT. Studied off and on for a year but scheduled the test about a month ago. There were a few questions I didn't have any idea on and some that didn't seem right. I did feel confident at the end though. Network Fundamentals 67% LAN Switching 69% Routing 53% Infrastructure Services 67% Infrastructure Maintenance 75%

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after studying port security, it seems to work differently then what I was assuming. Whats the difference between using sticky and not using sticky. they both seem to do the same thing.

At my job we issue the commands:

switchport port-security

switchport port-security mac-address sticky

The switch will learn the first Mac that tries to communicate through the access port and it sticks to the port. It will shutdown if another Mac is used.

On labs I've only had to use switchport port-security. It learns the first Mac address used, although it doesn't show the Mac it knows in show run like the sticky command does. If another Mac uses the port, the port will shutdown.

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UTP Cabling Pinouts for 1000BASE-T1000BASE-T (Gigabit Ethernet) differs from 10BASE-T and 100BASE-T as far as the cabling and pinouts. First, 1000BASE-T requires four wire pairs. Second, it uses more advanced electronics that allow both ends to transmit and receive simultaneously on each wire pair. However, the wiring pinouts for 1000BASE-T work almost identically to the earlier standards, adding details for the additional two pairs.The straight-through cable connects each pin with the same numbered pin on the other side, but it does so for all eight pins—pin 1 to pin 1, pin 2 to pin 2, up through pin 8. It keeps one pair at pins 1 and 2 and another at pins 3 and 6, just like in the earlier wiring. It adds a pair at pins 4 and 5 and the final pair at pins 7 and 8 (refer to Figure 2-10).The Gigabit Ethernet crossover cable crosses the same two-wire pairs as the crossover cable for the other types of Ethernet (the pairs at pins 1,2 and 3,6). It also crosses the two new pairs as well (the pair at pins 4,5 with the pair at pins 7,8). https://imagebin.ca/v/4ChC7y1lVreh.

Edit: adding the text from safari book and next to it a picture that i drew from what i understood.

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i find GNS3ing tough 😔.If you have any good suggestion from where do i learn GNS3 & Wirshark? I find it really hard i prefer packet tracer instead . But people say get used to GNS3ing & Wirshark if you wanna be good network engineer. Any suggestions? Any book or tutorial reference.

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/32 increments by 2.

0-1: 0 is the network id and 1 is broadcast

2-3: 2 is the network id and 3 is broadcast

so theres no usable IP in its range. What is the use of having a /32 network?

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What would happen if I sent a packet to (e.g.) 192.168.27.0? (Assuming a /24 netmask, of course.) In other words, why can't that address be a device (ideally the router)?

Edit: Yes, I know the address is reserved. Why is it reserved?

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Hey everyone,

I’m currently looking to move beyond my current company and I’m wondering what kind of positions I’m qualified for... a little bit about what I’ve already done in my two years in a network operations role:

  • monitored 300+ remote sites, campus locations, and data centers (to a lesser extent) - provided first level support for layers 1-3
  • established the noc in my current company (created and administered training and acted as lead) - they didn’t have a noc before me.... seriously and this is a Fortune 500 company
  • managed carrier relationships for all managed services routers. Often times driving the appropriate tests and gaining the appropriate attention for our wan circuits
  • facilitated communication between our internal business groups and vendors to remotely resolve issues (we would drive these - our vendors just provided remote hands support)
  • suggested and implemented configuration changes to improve operations
  • implemented minor changes such as iOS upgrades and what not
  • absolutely 0 interaction with firewalls
  • no input on design

My biggest hang up is the lack of training my employer has provided and no firewall experience. What can I realistically qualify for out there besides a noc? I want to move into an engineering role but I have confidence issues and often forget the importance my work has in the grand scheme of things and just chalk it up to another day at the office. Any input from those that understand my anxiety would be greatly appreciated

Also I post this here because i recently received my ccna and I’m wondering if anyone starting out is in a similar conundrum.

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I've tried searching a bit, but will I need to know full commands for the exam(s)? I've read that tabbing is not available, but ? is. Is this true?

Thanks much.

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If you enter the commands switchport mode access or swichport mode trunk followed by the command switchport port-security, what security mode will the interface be in - protect, restrict, or shutdown?

As I understand it, when you enter the command switchport port-security mac address sticky it adds all of the mac addresses in the mac address table that have been dynamically learned. With the default aging time being 300 seconds, this means that when you issue said command (with default aging), then only the mac addresses of hosts that have sent traffic to the router in the last 5 minutes will be allowed through the port. This seems crazy to me. Surely when the average network admin issues this command, there have been plenty of hosts that have not sent traffic in the last 5 minutes; but nonetheless, all of these hosts get excluded? Am I right about this?

Thank you for all of your help CCNA community. You all are helping me make the slow climb up the mountain and I really appreciate it.

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I was super demoralized after failing the ICND2, it was the first cert exam I've failed. All I could think about was the wasted $160 I paid to take the proctored exam. Anyway, it all worked out in the end, it just cost me more than I wanted it to.

I used the TestOut Labsim Routing and Switching Pro course. I had to buy it for a university class anyway, and it covers almost all of the material except the APIC traceroute and SPAN troubleshooting and a few other little things. The videos, demos, labs, info sheets, and loads of practice questions were all good and I would recommend it if you're looking for a one stop shop for your studies. You just need to supplement that studying with the newest stuff that isn't covered in the course, but you can find those easily in the exam objectives.

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I'm 4 days away from my CCNA 200-125 composite exam. My scores in boson exsims have been as follows 743, 811, 812, 811. I'm yet to give the last one.

Any advice as to how I can increase my score. I need 4-5 more questions to be correct. I'm yet to read all the explanations boson provides for every question. I think that'll be a good thing to do right now.

PS: really nervous now. If I perform similar to my practice tests (if not worse, hopefully), then 1 question wrong in the exam and I'm done.

Edit: is there any important topic, which I should know of and is not covered in boson. This could also help.

Thanks

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OK, so in this lammlie packettracer lab it says to use a subnet mask that will allow 4096 subnets with 4094 hosts per subnet with the 10.0.0.0 network. I completely understand that I need 12 1's to do this making a 255.255.240.0 subnet (11111111.11111111.11110000.00000000). Where I'm confused is where all of these subnets are coming from? The way I understand they're laid out is as follows:

10.0.0.0 - .15.255
10.0.16.0 - .32.255
10.0.32.0 - 63.255
10.0.64.0 - 79.255
10.0.80.0
10.0.96.0
10.0.112.0
10.0.128.0
10.0.144.0
10.0.160.0

10.0.172.0

10.0.188.0

10.0.204.0

10.0.220.0

10.0.236.0

10.0.252.0

I understand how to subnet these out, but what is confusing me is the 4096 subnets. How is that making that many subnets? I only see 16 subnets here, what am I missing!?

I know to use the powers of 2 to get there, but something isn't clicking.

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I don't want to lose the current IOS I'm on but I want to clear the configuration of this second hand ASA.

Thanks.

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Ran into this and tried to lab it in PT but could not replicate. I don't have a router handy to try it on until tomorrow. So this is the gist of the issue:

Boson ExSim 200-105 H1

Q: RouterA is unable to communicate with RouterB?

Running config on RouterB shows this:

interface Serial0

ip address 10.1.1.2 255.255.255.240

no ip directed-broadcast

ppp authentication chap

Correct answer is: Router B is using default encapsulation.

I know HDLC does not support authentication. I know in PT you cannot place authentication on an HDLC serial (PT tells you no). Just to test I tried swapping to PPP, entering ppp auth chap, and swapping back to HDLC. Still does not show in running config.

In the Boson ex-sim it will let you place authentication on an HDLC serial(it does not say no). Also you can swap to PPP, enter ppp auth chap, swap back to HDLC and it will still show in running config.

I'm just guessing here but I should never see a running config that looks like the one from the ExSim?

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Try no. 2, just want to thank this sub for the encouragement to keep on! Now, on to ICND 2...

Used INE videos/rack rentals, Boson Exams, the practicalnetworking.net site was helpful with getting started again, after a hiatus of a few months, and Lammle's book. Of course I had the old version of the book and didn't realize it until I read the whole damn thing!

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I started my IT apprenticeship when I was 15years old, during my apprenticeship I got to experience a lot of different IT departments and the Network team was by far the most interesting one. So for my last year I worked there and learned a lot and since a position opened up as a network specialist around the time I'd be finished my mentor told me that they'd hire me and give me a better salary if I passed the CCNA R&S. So around 4 months ago I started studying for the exam and after 2 months I had my first attempt, as expected I failed with a score of 750/810.

I wasn't discouraged by that and started reading on those topics I had problem with and did a lot of Switching labs since that was my weak point. Going into my second attempt last week I felt a lot more comfortable with all the material and I actually passed! My score isn't really impressive (839/810) and I was expecting to be a little bit better but I'm glad I was able to achieve that.

I'm not quite sure where I'm going with all this now but I'm glad I can get a lot of work experience now.

I've also got a question, in my first attempt I had less questions but 2 more exam topics, Infrastructure Security and Infrastructure Management were missing on my second try. Could anyone explain this?

EDIT: *"I wasn't discouraged" and not "I wasn't encouraged" :D was a typo

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Posted byCCENT2 days ago

I thought i failed this exam because i skipped a whole sim question by accident...

Anyways, break down is here:
Network Fundamentals - 92%
LAN Switching Fundamentals - 81%
Routing Fundamentals - 100%
Infrastructure Services - 33%
Infrastructure Maintenance - 50%

I used the following:
INE Videos and Labs
Boson exSim
On-job experience
These Packet Tracer labs found in the comments - https://learningnetwork.cisco.com/thread/4933

I didn’t use the OCG as i'm not a big fan of reading and it's not really the way i learn personally. I started my job about 5 months ago and i started actually studying about 2 months ago.

Will be starting my studying on ICND2 come Monday!

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I attempted the ICND1 exam about 2 years ago and I remember the simulation questions really overwhelming me (it was my first cert test) and I was wondering if you guys have any advice on how to tackle them for my next attempt in two (2) weeks.

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Passed my SECFND today. Was very shocked to see I only got 854/1000 but I rushed through it taking only 17 minutes out of the allotted 80 minutes hahaha.

Keys to my success: -Cyber Ops online scholarship material -Udemy practice tests (did these until I was getting over 90% on all them) -Working out/keeping physically fit (kept me mentally engaged when studying)

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