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ELI5: why sometimes there's an exclamation point after a number? by Manonxo in explainlikeimfive

[–]ParmesanCheeseWheel 4060 points4061 points  (0 children)

I, in change, feel happy for you. You sought the knowledge and learned something new. There are no stupid questions if it means gaining new knowledge my friend. Ask ask ask to learn learn learn! Cheers.

Edit: spelling cos i are stooped

ELI5: Why are stimulants like adderall only therapeutic to people with ADHD, and not recommended for normal people improve performance? by AltruisticRaven in explainlikeimfive

[–]thebeardedcannuck 3275 points3276 points  (0 children)

I was just diagnosed at 27 years old, and starting stimulants changed my life. I’ve read more in the past two months than I have my entire life and I love it. I don’t interrupt people while they are talking, if I think of something stupid I don’t just say it. It’s wonderful!


Thanks for the reddit gold everyone. If you have three hours and want to learn about ADHD you need to go on YouTube and watch a lecture by dr. Russell Barkley called 30 essential ideas for parents! That was the video I watched and decided I had to talk to my doctor. I realized I had actually Learned most of the helping behaviours myself, but I was still impaired. This man changed my life and I hope I get to thank him in person one day!

ELI5: How can someone physically consume 74 hot dogs and what is the "aftermath" like? by LonnyF in explainlikeimfive

[–]Deuce232[M] 845 points846 points  (0 children)

I think you fire the community manager and the sub just implodes on its own. It's been a while so i forget the details.

ELI5: If bad posture is so bad, why does it feel so good?! by _twentyseven in explainlikeimfive

[–]mmmEtOH 3 points4 points  (0 children)

The ELI5 short answer was stated pretty well by wizardkacy. There is much more involvement in the intervertebral disc and ligament mechanics themselves as pain generators than actual pressure on the spinal nerves in most cases, but it's a good visualization tool nonetheless. I wanted to expand upon the idea that slouching doesn't actually feel good for someone who has ideal postural muscle activation and joint mechanics.

Posture is a pretty fickle animal in the minds of many, but there is actually good scientific evidence which differentiates "good" vs "bad" posture. Ideal posture and motor patterns are determined by developmental kinesiology. No one teaches a baby how to roll, crawl, or sit up straight. It is an automatic, genetic progression of a maturing central nervous system. With the exception of musculoskeletal or neurological pathology, our brains are hardwired to respond to gravity and our environment, following a stereotyped progression of developmental milestones from the first signs of purposeful movement at 3 months all the way to upright standing posture at about 13 months.

The system of stabilizing muscles of the spine and "core" involves the short intersegmental spinal muscles (multifidi, etc), the deep neck flexors, the diaphragm, the abdominal wall, and the pelvic floor. Balance and function of these muscles is needed to maintain proper alignment of the axial skeleton and joint centration in the spine and extremities. Poor posture inevitably involves inactivity or weakness of one or more of these muscle groups. How does this happen? Injury, stress, and social influences (high heels, sucking in our bellies to look thin, etc.) can disrupt the ideal motor patterns of good posture. In some cases, musculoskeletal problems in adulthood may be traced back to the first year of life. Progressing too rapidly through developmental milestones before ideal stabilization has occurred may lead to susceptibility to poor posture in the future.

One of the most common problems I see in my practice is inhibition of the diaphragm and the prevalence of "chest breathing". Restoring muscular balance and retraining the diaphragm to function in its proper respiratory and postural function will make sitting upright feel effortless. If you aren't creating sufficient abdominal pressure and spinal stabilization with diaphragmatic breathing, sitting upright with good posture will feel difficult as your body uses auxiliary muscle groups in an attempt to hold yourself upright. These other muscle groups are not ontogenetically designed for this function and will inevitably fail, leading to muscle fatigue, soreness, trigger points, slouching, etc. Then we can get into a whole discussion on arthritis, stenosis, impingement, and an unending list of other "syndromes" that we love to classify and put fancy names on, which for the most part, are due to poor posture and movement patterns.

TLDR: Bad posture may feel good temporarily, but it goes against a genetically determined ideal pattern and leads to problems later in life.

ELI5: Why does using a tootbrush how we do not make us sick? It is never sanitised and sit in your bathroom all day. by Mattacus27 in explainlikeimfive

[–]Deuce232[M] [score hidden] stickied comment (0 children)

Hi y'all,

This is what I like to call a 'universal experience thread'. Almost everyone has brushed at least one tooth. As a consequence of that ubiquity, threads like this tend to get a lot replies that don't conform to our rule 3.

Most commonly removed comments:

"OP wrote a bad title, bad OP"

"Here is some advice on how to store a toothbrush"

"I leave my toothbrush in a medical grade sterilization device so your premise is flawed"

"Did you know various bacteria facts?"

Here at ELI5 we try to maintain a focus on simplified explanations of complex concepts. Anything that isn't that can't be a reply directly to the OP. That ensures that the sub reliably sees good explanations rise to prominence.

Having a comment you spent time crafting removed is a negative experience. We like to give a little warning when we can to try to save some people from that.

Keep in mind that replies to other comments don't have that same standard applied to them.

Here's a link to the rules, which have recently been rewritten to be more informative/clear.

As always, I am not the final authority on any of this. If you want my mod-action reviewed you can send a modmail. If you want to have a meta-conversation about the rules of the sub you can make a post in r/ideasforeli5 which is our home for that.

ELI5: Neon Genesis Evangelion, original series. From GEHIRN to SEELE, the events of the series and the end. by actionjackson20 in explainlikeimfive

[–]rufio_vega 80 points81 points  (0 children)

I am by and large a lurker, but after seeing this sort of question being brought up again, and a continued lack of proper information given out, I thought I'd try a hand at clearing things up. Took quite a while, and I hope I'm posting this right.

The Origin of Life: In Evangelion, the seeds of life were brought to Earth and spread across the entire galaxy by an ancient alien race. Two types of seeds are known to exist: the White and Black Moons. In each Moon is the material necessary to bring about life in vastly different ways. In addition, each Moon contains a fail-safe to prevent the progeny of a Seed conflicting with the progeny of a second Seed in the event that a planet accidentally be seeded more than once.

This is ultimately what happened on Earth.

“First Impact” While a White Moon was the first to reach Earth, a Black Moon also managed to reach Earth before the White Moon could begin progeneration. The arrival of the Black Moon, in an event that coincidentally resulted in the formation of the actual Moon of Earth, is the event known as “First Impact”.

In most cases, the fail-safe protocols in the Black Moon would have rendered it dormant. But this fail-safe was damaged during First Impact, which resulted in the White Moon becoming dormant instead.

The Black Moon eventually released it’s contents, the primordial soup of Ancient Earth, which was the source of all eventual life on the planet. Humans were the ultimate result and became the dominant lifeform.

“Second Impact”: Sometime during the 1990s, the White Moon was discovered in present-day Antarctica by the Katsuragi Research Team. This team was sent out some time after the discovery of the Black Moon beneath the city of Hakone, Japan. While the Black Moon’s presence was made public, referred to as “the Geofront” structure (though its contents remained classified), the existence of the White Moon is never made public.

Giant entities are eventually discovered within both structures: Adam of the White Moon, and Lilith of the Black Moon.

Experiments are initially carried out by the Katsuragi Research Team on Adam. While exact details are unknown, it is revealed that it involved contact between an undisclosed source of human DNA and Adam. This resulted in two subsequent events: the birth of Kaworu Nagisa and the awakening of Adam.

During the team’s experiments, they removed Adam’s fail-safe, an object dubbed “the Lance of Longinus” (depicted as a large, red spear). The combined acts of removing the Lance and physical contact awoke the being.

Now fully aware again after millennia, Adam attempted to reclaim earth by eliminating any and all competing progeny of the Black Moon (the offspring of Lilith, man, often referred to as the Lillin), effectively leaving it a clean slate to begin the process of building life itself.

The Katsuragi Research Team attempted to stop Adam by use of the Lance, but it was too late and the event known as “Second Impact” began. This resulted in the death of much ocean life and the destruction of Antarctica, the subsequent mass flooding causing havoc across the planet.

In the end, while the team failed to stop Adam entirely, their efforts still managed to subdue Adam eventually. Adam was reduced to an embryonic state, his “soul” removed, and newly “created” Kaworu Nagisa became a vessel for this “soul”.

With the exception of young Misato Katsuragi, and key individuals who conveniently left the research site just prior to the event (specifically Gendo Ikari), the research team was killed during Second Impact.

ELI5: How do long term space projects (i.e. James Webb Telescope) that take decades, deal with technological advancement implementation within the time-frame of their deployment? by Kagrabular in explainlikeimfive

[–]gargolito 334 points335 points  (0 children)

Your "Obama broke it" comment is so transparent that I just knew it had to be misleading or incomplete. After one single Google search, I found this post:

The ultimate answer is the Columbia disaster. This disaster demonstrated that the growing expense of, and inherent risks in, the Shuttle program precluded long term use of the Shuttle. From chapter 9, page 210 of the Report of Columbia Accident Investigation Board (emphasis theirs):

Even so, based on its in-depth examination of the Space Shuttle Program, the Board has reached an inescapable conclusion: Because of the risks inherent in the original design of the Space Shuttle, because that design was based in many aspects on now-obsolete technologies, and because the Shuttle is now an aging system but still developmental in character, it is in the nationʼs interest to replace the Shuttle as soon as possible as the primary means for transporting humans to and from Earth orbit.

The decision to retire the Shuttle came shortly after the CAIB made their report. In early 2004 when President George W. Bush announced of his Vision for Space Exploration where he said (emphasis mine):

To meet this goal, we will return the Space Shuttle to flight as soon as possible, consistent with safety concerns and the recommendations of the Columbia Accident Investigation Board. The Shuttle's chief purpose over the next several years will be to help finish assembly of the International Space Station. In 2010, the Space Shuttle -- after nearly 30 years of duty -- will be retired from service.

NASA immediately began following this mandate. Starting in 2004, NASA began the long process of continuing Shuttle program operations (after returning to flight) to complete the construction of the International Space Station, and then retire the Shuttle in 2010. (Ultimately that retirement would occur 2011 rather than 2010. President Obama added two additional flights to the original manifest.)

Part of the process begun in 2004 was a decision to make various lifetime buys of parts that needed to be replaced on every Shuttle flight. They knew exactly how many more flights there would be needed. Add parts for a couple of contingency flights, and they knew exactly how much to buy. Many of those parts were one of a kind items. There were specialty bolts and connectors of non-standard dimensions and made of exotic alloys. There were vintage 1970s era pieces of electronics. Many of these were made by mom and pop fabricators. They stayed in business primarily because they were doing something good for the country. When they fulfilled those lifetime buy purchases, many of those mom and pop fabricators simply went out of business. They retired with the Shuttle.

This process was largely complete in 2008. By 2009, the decision to terminate the Shuttle program was irrevocable. The logistics chain was gone. For more on this, see Wayne Hale's NASA Blog: Shutting Down the Shuttle.

ELI5: Why do plastic milk jugs always have gross little dried flakes of milk crust around the edge of the cap? No other containers of liquid (including milk-based ones) seem to have this problem. by TrumpImpeachedAugust in explainlikeimfive

[–]rizzo5522 20.1k points20.1k points x2 (0 children)

I work at a dairy. I've ran the machines that make the bottles and fill the bottles. Basically after the milk goes in the cap is for a lack of a better term dropped onto the top of the bottle, pressed down and then screwed tight in basically one quick motion that takes about a second. When the cap is pressed down excess milk will squeeze out of the top before it screwed on tightly. After the cap has been attached the filled bottles go through a quick sanitize rinse before they are put into milk crates. The rinse gets the vast majority of the milk off but the little bit that's left will eventually dry on. When we fill we fill to the top with no air bubbles left, which you have to do because milk foams when it's being forced quickly into a bottle like that. When you look at other drinks that come in bottles you'll notice there's a little bit of air at the top, but not so much in a milk jug.

For the five year olds in the room 😁 milk has a lot of air bubbles in it when you first put it in the bottle so you have to over fill it to top it off.. we give the bottles a bath but sometimes a little gets left behind.

ELI5: Why do you feel so excruciatingly bad, sometimes even hours, before you puke? by sejed in explainlikeimfive

[–]bootsandblood 1 point2 points  (0 children)

Edit: Thank you for the gold stranger! To answer your second question, dry goods such as crackers, plain cereals, bread to start. Sip on water. You don't want to overload your system. If you hold dry foods like that down fine try other things. Avoid sugary and excessively processed stuff, may make you sick again. Source: I have IBS-D, and it makes me puke, alot.

ELI5: Why must I completely shut my patchy Wi-Fi off in order for my mediocre data to kick in? Would it not be possible for them work hand in hand like super hero and sidekick to provide the fastest possible connection always? And can they not together make a stronger connection than either alone? by awesam96 in explainlikeimfive

[–]bananalord666 8118 points8119 points  (0 children)

Basically what happens is that Mr Wi-Fi is told to deliver a bunch of packages to your house. He delivers some of them but on one of the trips a bad guy distracts him and now he can't deliver the packages.

Command center doesn't know that until suddenly they can't contact Mr Wi-Fi anymore! Now they have to finish the delivery, but they forgot what already made it to your house. It's Data Boy to the rescue!

Data Boy lives on the other side of town and has to find a new way to bring you what you need. He goes to a new warehouse nearer to his house to get you everything, since Command Center forgot what they gave you.

Anyways my point is; since Mr Wi-Fi and Data Boy don't start from the same place, and they can't communicate, Data Boy has to start from scratch to give you the package.


Edit: Gold! Thank you kind stranger.

Edit2: a lot of people are asking why you can't have them work together. I did some digging on Google and it's time to ELI5!

So as I understand it, the way it works right now is that Command Center is working hard to send things to everybody, but this is hard because they have itty bitty roads.

Not only are these tiny roads, they are also tough to walk on! So right now only one hero at a time on a tiny road.

Very smart people are making a nice highway so heroes and side kicks can work together, but that is very hard and they are still figuring put how to build it. Also, the highway will be easy to walk on, so normal people can walk on it too!

Until we have the highway, we have to be good kids and wait for the heroes to send the packages.

Source: https://en.m.wikipedia.org/wiki/Multipath_TCP

ELI5: How is a big open-world video game (like GTA 5) made? by Xeluc in explainlikeimfive

[–]dragon-storyteller 5571 points5572 points  (0 children)

Everyone is giving you detailed descriptions, but the truth is, the workflow differs greatly between studios and development teams. Some tend to rely on touched-up or even ingame procedural generation while others prefer to have it mostly handmade by designers, some place important locations on the map and fill in the blank while others start from one end and moving from there, etc. There is no single approach here to describe.

ELI5: Why haven't prions infected every living system/organism, around 1 billion / 500 million years ago? by justanothercap in explainlikeimfive

[–]JohnQK 4173 points4174 points x2 (0 children)

Prions don't have many of the tools that we, as living things, take for granted. Specifically, they can't reproduce on their own and they can't move. They can't even orient themselves. They're just protein chains.

Imagine a bunch of keys and locks floating in water. The keys are totally inert unless they go inside a lock. The keys can't swim, or move, or change which way they are facing. Their only hope of doing something is if the water just so happens to carry them in just the right way that they just so happen to land just right inside a lock.

That's what it's like to be a prion in your body. It's just floating around bumping into stuff without any control over what's happening. Most of the things it bumps into aren't even locks. The poor thing could spend a decade just bumbling around in your foot with nothing to attach to.

If you stir the water long enough, it's going to eventually happen. Eventually a key will land in a lock just the right way. Adding more keys and more locks will make it happen more often, but it'll still take a really long time for it to happen enough to matter.

ELIF: Why is restaurant food vastly more calorie dense than preparing food at home? Even at restaurants where they cook everything fresh, the calorie count is insane. by ellejaexo in explainlikeimfive

[–]cdbjr 1 point2 points  (0 children)

Once every two hours, to an hour a half would be clinical guidelines for polyuria.

polyuria is 2.5 to 3 L in 24 hours

Normal adult bladder is 400-600ml.

2.5L = 2,500 ml 3L = 3,000 ml

3.0L / 0.4L = 7.50 full bladders a day (FBD). 2.5L / 0.6L = 6.25 FBD. 2.5L / 0.6L = 4.16 FBD. 3.0L / 0.6L = 5.00 FBD.

Depending on the volume of an adult bladder, 5-8 good teeth chattering pisses a day.

Normal urine output range is 0.8L to 2L daily. Normal volume before you feel the sensation to urinate is 0.3L.

If you went every time you felt like you needed to go, the amount would be 8-10 voids a day.

Normal urine output is 50-60ml an hour. 60ml/hr is 1.44L a day.

83ml an hour would be needed for 2L. 2.5L = 104ml/hr 3L would be 125ml an hour.

0.3L / 0.125L ph = 2.4 hours between voids. 0.3L / 0.05L ph = 6 hours between voids.

8 hours sleep at 50ml = 400ml on wakening 60 = 480 83 = 664 125 = 1,000

Unsure what volume wakes people up. WebMD says once per 6-8 hr sleep is normal. Over that and it’s nocturia ( increased night time voids )

With a stream an hour ... with 300ml being where you could feel it, and being awake say 16 hours a day... 300 * 16 = 4,800ml. Half would be 2,400.

So for your question:

Once every two hours, to hour an an half would be clinical guidelines for polyuria.

ELI5: Why is - 1 X - 1 = 1 ? by blackbass1999 in explainlikeimfive

[–]Klem_buche 149 points150 points  (0 children)

I'm actually french so i'm gonna try to give you a few tips but I won't have time to check for perfect grammar.

As a teacher :

1)Read https://www.amazon.com/Teaching-Design-Science-Pedagogical-Technology/dp/041580387X I think this sums up and unifies a lots of "education theory" into one clear diagram called the conversational framework.

2)Learn how the learning process work at the brain level, memory, attention, how emotions play a role, the system 1 and system 2 ( http://bigthink.com/errors-we-live-by/kahnemans-mind-clarifying-biases ), what is chunking, the role of repetition, the theory of flow. Learn about the different types of intelligences, growth mindset, motivation and be able to explain all of these concepts to kids to teach them how to learn.

3)Encourage reading. Show that you read. Ask about their reading. This is so important.

4)You owe them to be strict. It's not bad, it's not jerky. They have to enter your class knowing that they won't have the choice but to work. Remind them that it's because it's your duty to give them the knowledge that will allow them to be free. The school institution has to defend humanism values.

5)Teach them to act and talk differently in differents situations, as you do. Wich implies attitude and language. Wanting to have fun is normal, you can have conversation with them about a lots of things but teaching time is teaching time.

6)Be consistent and fair. If you say something do it. You don't punish them, they punish themselves by breaking the rules and jeez, you wish they hadn't and it disappoint you because you know they can act in a good way. Separate the period when they can or can't talk, when they can or can't cooperate. Have a variety.

7)Don't allow being disrespected or making fun of in a mean way. Even if subtil or it could be misunderstood. Never be mean and always show that you care about them and they will respect you.

8)You don't know what's going on at home. Kids can have a really rough life. Talk with colleague and health staff if you see some kids having trouble.

9)Don't give too much homework, honestly a good attention in class and little work should be enough for most kids.

10)Learn to find good ressources. Every concept has been reasearched and there is good way to teach it our there. Your job is not to create everything from scratch, but to create the learning experience.

11)Be explicit with what they need to know. When you give a test, give details about what will be demanded from them. Don't grade to harsh or you're gonna discourage them, you have to some balance.

As a math teacher :

1)Always begin a lesson with a small exercise on the board that can be anything. Things they saw months ago, something that will help them understand the current lesson, mental calculation, etc.

2)Proportionnality is central to middle school. First year of middle school I don't do it as a separate chapter but use it all through the year. (organized in 6 parts : prices, length, angles, time, areas and volumes. it can cover all of the number/geometry concepts many times (we call it spiral progression in France). Deep understanding of it take a long time but fonctionnal understanding is necessary and give them confidence.

3)Don't do a "addition" then a "substraction" then a "multiplication" or "division" chapter. How can they learn wich operation is to be used when they only practice one at a time. Btw, use langage as a way to help them understand wich operation is at stake. (how many time this number can fit in this one?

4)At middle school level, teach them how to use at least three programs : Geogebra for geometry Scratch for programming and game Excel or something

5)I began my carreer with printed lessons with words to fill. Now the "lesson part" is almost completely constructed with markers on the board by asking them what we're gonna write or do as much as possible. This teach them how to speak with rigour. This allow to talk about concepts more deeply. Yay btw you're a langage teacher too. Teach them to be autonomous and remind them that you don't care what their lesson look like as long as all the infos are there, that it's clear, and that they'll be able to understand it. We don't get to write that much these days as adults but I really think the paper and pen allow liberty of thought and should always be taught. Keep the lessons short and straightforward.

You can give links to video or other ressources with the school program.

6)USB CAMERA. You lose so much time by sending kids to the board to write down what they already did at their table for the class to see. Take their notebook and show their work on the whiteboard. Welcome error and don't judge it. Error is what allow you to learn. Make kids comment and explain the error and how to avoid it. Don't have to use the shitty geometry board tool all the time. Use the same kind they use and show with the camera.

I didn't give you any advice about how to explain specific things but honestly there is many good ressources out there. Being a good teacher is more about teaching them how to learn and motivate them to do so.

Sometimes you can think they don't understand math but honestly most of them would by giving some fucks. A kid that wants to succeed would with an average teacher, a kid that doesn't want to wouldn't learn with the best explanation cause he would'nt really pay active attention. So of course always focus on why math is useful. Try to make the learning experience as pleasant as necessary (can't always be the case.)

In some family the motivation come from the enviromnent, pressure and expectation from the parents, some kids don't have that chance. If you want them to succeed you should have high expectations for them.

ELI5: How can my headphone jack tell the difference between my car's aux cord and my headphones? by mgrovier in explainlikeimfive

[–]SierraVixen 1768 points1769 points  (0 children)

EDIT 2, ELECTRIC BOOGALOO: Thank you so much for my first ever Reddit gold, stranger. You guys in the comments have all been awesome. <3

Your phone can "feel" how hard it has to push and pull against what's plugged into the aux jack. It moves the speaker in your headphones out with a push of electrons and then it pulls back to pull it in. Do this fast or slow and you have a frequency, and do it in very specific timing and you're vibrating just like someone's vocal cords, or the string on an instrument, or a combination of those.

Aux in your car is different like they said. See, instead of talking directly to a tiny easy to push speaker in headphones your car has really big intimidating speakers and your phone is really apprehensive about a job that big. So instead it talks to a middle manager in the stereo called an amplifier who listens to your phone and they and their friends in the stereo do the job of pushing and pulling themselves, making things really really easy on your phone. There's basically no pushing and pulling happening at all!

Your phone keeps track of how hard it is to push or pull something so it doesn't hurt itself or do something really rude like shout in an amplifier's ear because they're friends and friends don't do that. Nowadays phones are clever enough that they remember how loud that pushing and pulling should be for those two friends instead of forgetting every time it changes. It's important to note that the volume (amplitude) of the pushing and pulling is different than how hard it is to do the work. Think pushing and pulling two boxes the same size the same distance at the same speed, but one box is empty and the other is full of rocks. Someone watching wouldn't know it, but your arms sure feel the difference! The phone's the same way pushing and pulling that signal through the wire.

Hope that helps~

EDIT: Some have clarified that the phone is not measuring impedance and I'm here to say you're absolutely right! Top comment has a somewhat half right answer. If you liked my ELI5 above be ready for something more like an ELI12 below.

So, impedance is the friction, the squeeze, the resistance to a flow of electricity. Specifically when you're pushing and pulling back and forth instead of going one way all the time. You've probably heard something along the lines of batteries are DC and your house is AC at some point in your life. This gets somewhat complicated so we're going to do the subject a disservice by leaving it really simple and saying DC only cares about how much resistance, or friction if we're using a pushing boxes across the floor metaphor, in that circuit or pathway to it's destination. Impedance is more complicated, it's that friction on the floor but it's also invisible things that interfere and slow us down. Radio, magnetic fields, it's hard to really give a good basic explanation that really illustrates what our push and pull signal are going to go through but we'll say some environments are windy in the place you're pushing the box. Sometimes it's at your back, your front, or your side and that can all have an impact on what your pushing and pulling looks like so you need to work hard to make sure that the receiver of your signal sees what you want them to. This extra work, and the work in general, is the load. The load is a measurement of how much power it's taking to do the thing you're trying to do. A really rough road that rubs on your box a lot and high winds and you're working really hard. A really slick road and no wind and you're flying that box across the ground with ease. Now, we don't really have the measuring instruments to say exactly how rough the winds and road are, but we do know how much power we're putting in to work. That's load monitoring. We could probably make a really good guess what the impedance of our environment is now that we know how far and how fast to shift the box around as well as how much power we're putting in to do it but we don't need to. We can continue to leave that variable unknown because all we need are the other two.

For the budding engineers: We'll assume we're converting our impedance to equivalent resistance because it makes the demonstration easier. Load monitoring is not finding R in V=IR, rather it's monitoring our circuit for I. Now, obviously, we could calculate R since we now monitor and know V and I at any given time but there's really no need to. We don't need to monitor R so long as we have a threshold for I to prevent damage in case of a short. Which we really need to do, because a TRS stereo mini connector shorts the output lines every time it's pulled in or pushed out. That's that really obnoxious crackle, pop! that happens when you pull the jack that goes to your speakers. So now, since we have a bunch of really cool integrated circuits that have started to cost pennies to put in phones we don't just shunt a shorted load. We monitor it and have a couple thresholds, a short condition that tells the phone to cut power to the amp and pause playback because the headphones were removed/inserted, a value range associated with being connected directly to an amp, and a value range associated with being connected to headphones.

ELI5: why when you have a cold, if you walk around or eat food your nose clears up, but as soon as you sit back down again it blocks back up? by FloralDecanter in explainlikeimfive

[–]danzibara 66 points67 points  (0 children)

So, if you are jacking off while the plants are blowing their loads in your nose and eyes, what kind of sex act is that? It is certainly more than a threesome, and it isn’t beastiality. I guess my best guess would be infinitum-phyto-philia: aka, masturbating when your allergies are acting up.

Edit: Thank you kind stranger for my first reddit gold!

ELI5: Why can we easily walk for hours on end, but struggle when running just for a few minutes? by Cryogenicastronaut in explainlikeimfive

[–]coliander 737 points738 points  (0 children)

A few of the answers here are a little misleading.

Walking and running actually use very similar amounts of energy. The difference comes with how that energy is delivered.
Let's say you walk one mile at a pace of 4 mph. It will take you 15 minutes to walk that mile and your circulatory system has 15 minutes to deliver the necessary resources your body needs to power you for that journey.
Now, lets say you double that pace and jog a mile at 8 mph. Now your circulatory system only has 7.5 minutes to deliver all the necessary resources to your body and therefore has to work twice as hard.

There are other minor reasons that we use a little more energy when running as opposed to walking (wind resistance, using different muscle groups, etc) but we're essentially using the same amount of fuel.

We're more tired after running a mile than walking because asking your body to deliver those resources at a higher rate puts a lot of stress on it. Just like your legs become tired due to muscle fatigue, your heart becomes tired due to muscle fatigue too. If you continue to give your heart a workout - just like any other muscle - it will increase in strength and efficiency, allowing it to work harder for longer.

Edit: Holy shit, guys. I was using an 8mph jog for the sake of simplifying the mathematics from a 4mph walk! I wasn't suggesting it was a national average! I've enjoyed reading the replies, though.

Anecdotally, I'm a keen cyclist who cycles 100+ miles a week, can comfortably manage a 20mph cruising speed on good tarmac and I'd class my fitness levels as above average, but certainly not athletic. I can run an 8mph mile, but only one of them! Then again, I don't run regularly and I reckon a reasonably fit casual runner would see a sustained 8mph pace as feasible as my 20mph cycle.

So there.

ELI5: Why are children being separated from their parents at the US-Mexico border? by thedinklestho in explainlikeimfive

[–]ughhhhh420 1059 points1060 points  (0 children)

So, the historical practice has been to separate children from parents if they were caught at the border and did not agree to voluntarily return. And by historical I mean that has been the practice since the start of the US.

The main reason this is done is procedural, if you are caught illegally crossing the border and refuse to voluntarily return then you have committed a crime and you get put into a Federal detention center. There is simply no other place to put people found illegally crossing the border.

The Federal Government operates separate detention centers for children and adults, and so they go to separate centers.

There are two reasons for that.

The first is that it simply isn't safe for children in the adult detention centers, since they are usually just general purpose jails.

The second is that forcibly deporting someone is a long and very expensive process. Separating families encourages people to voluntarily deport, which saves the US Government a lot of money and helps speed up the immigration process for everyone else.

Although this practice has not changed, the way that illegal immigrants treat the system has. Historically the overwhelming majority of people caught at the border would simply agree to leave the country and that was the end of it.

However, the Obama administration began allowing anyone who had made an asylum claim stay in the US so long as they had a relative or friend they could stay with. This resulted in almost every person who was caught at the border making an asylum claim.

Almost none of those claims are valid, but it takes 2-3 months for the claim to be denied and most people just disappear during that time.

What the Trump administration has done is to grant border patrol officers the discretion to look at asylum claims being made by people being detained at the border. If the border patrol agent determines that the asylum claim has no merit, the person is treated like anyone else who was caught at the border and placed in a detention center while their asylum claim works its way through the legal system.

A judge can still grant a person so detained asylum, but instances of that actually happening are almost non-existent.

People that border patrol determines have a legitimate asylum claim are still permitted to stay with a family or friend if they have one available.

People that agree to leave voluntarily are not put into detention centers, they mostly get held together in a cell at the facility where they were caught until transportation can be arranged to take them back, which might take a day or two depending on where they were caught. If they drove/walked into a border checkpoint, which is where many people are now getting "caught" they can just drive/walk back if they want.

This is not a change in any longstanding policy, rather it is a fix designed to stop people from gaming a system designed to help legitimate asylum seekers.

The "tent city" thing comes from the fact that there has recently been a giant wave of people trying to cross the border to make bogus asylum claims. Its getting to the point that there is no longer space in Federal detention centers, and so the government is doing what it does whenever its ability to deal with people is overwhelming - its erecting temporary facilities to house the overflow.

These facilities aren't made out of camping tents, rather they are made out of tents that are designed to support military deployments. If you've ever seen a picture of a US base in Iraq or Afghanistan then you know what the tents look like but generally its like this.

The reason they use tents like that is because that is simply what the Federal government has on hand to deal with situations like this. You usually see these same tents after major disasters being used to house US citizens until they can find somewhere else as well.

ELI5: How is it more profitable to produce new porn instead of recycling overabundant available supply? by Naotagrey in explainlikeimfive

[–]inkseep1 55 points56 points  (0 children)

because 4 billion people are still trying to find the perfect porn video where the guy behind the camera keeps his mouth shut the entire time and the stunt dick also doesn't say anything stupid during the money shot.

ELI5: In a cup of coffee, why does the top of the liquid leave a stain ring, whereas the rest of the liquid does not? by theskyisthelimi in explainlikeimfive

[–]icemountainisnextome 530 points531 points x7 (0 children)

Same. I no longer desire it now

EDIT- Are you fucking kidding me Reddit? Some of the wittiest most clever shit Ive ever seen/read has been on this site, not gilded, and this is what pops my gold cherry?

Well anyways, thanks Stranger.

Edit 2- I wake up to 6 more guildings, incredible. Now if only I could trade them in for coffee. Thanks Strangers