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ELI5: During CPR why do chest compressions have to be between 100-120 when the average pulse is around 60-80? by Vaingloriou5 in explainlikeimfive

[–]alreadygotsome 231 points232 points  (0 children)

So I should preform CPR with a toilet plunger?

Yes. More people would probably be prepared with plungers if they didn't find them to be so cumbersome to carry. Pro tip: Wearing your plunger on your head will make carrying one a breeze, and allows others to immediately recognize you as the authority on life-saving skills when the shit hits the fan.

ELI5: Why do nostril pimples hurt so much more than regular pimples? by LilacPenny in explainlikeimfive

[–]ZuluCharlieRider 171 points172 points  (0 children)

Neurophysiologist here:

The correct answer:

The density of somatosensory (sensation, which includes pain) receptors is higher in the face (and particularly around the mouth, eyes, and nose) than in other parts of the body.

Nostril pimples (and pimples on/near the lips) hurt more than in other areas because local inflammation caused by the pimple is activating more pain nerve endings than pimples located in other areas of the body - because of the higher density (pain endings per surface area of skin) of somatosensory receptors in this part of the body.

ELI5: Why is the musical 'Hamilton' so popular? by RatSandwiches in explainlikeimfive

[–]thesweetestpunch 182 points183 points  (0 children)

Besides intangibles ("rags to riches story!" "innovative!" etc), let's look at some more concrete reasons:

1) Star Writer. Broadway doesn't have a lot of rock star writers; even our most famous writers tend to be reclusive types (witness the public bashfulness and awkwardness of Jason Robert Brown, Stephen Sondheim, etc). Hamilton's writer is also its star, and has famously high energy, a huge twitter following, and a real understanding of social media. Don't believe me? 5 years ago one of his wedding videos went viral to the tune of 4.5 million views. Being a performer as well as a writer also allows him to promote his work in places other theatre writers might not; for example, he was invited to perform its opening number for Barack Obama in 2009, which meant that the President of the United States was now excited to see Hamilton before anything other than an opening song had been written.

2) Ham4Ham and Modern Marketing. Hamilton's marketing team has an easy tagline for the ticket lottery: See Hamilton [the show] for a Hamilton [$10]. And because Lin-Manuel gets the power of events, and social media, and charisma, he's made the lottery into an event all its own. If you line up for the Wicked ticket lottery, you stand outside and maybe if you're lucky you win a ticket. If you line up for the Hamilton ticket lottery, you get to see a show. Sometimes it's a show with a major guest star, sometimes it's a gimmick, sometimes it's the cast switching it up. But it's turned into a real event in NYC, with up to 1500 lining up in the cold for it. That's incredible for continued word-of-mouth.

3) The Competition. Okay, social media and an on-the-street event. So what? Well, Broadway marketing is hopelessly dated and youth-repellant. This is a commercial for a Broadway show from last season. Brutal, right? So that's the competition.

4) Word of Mouth Outside the Theatre Community. It is very, very important to the success of Hamilton that it is not just a hip-hop musical, but a hip-hop musical with very good raps in it. This means that it's able to draw in not just theatre stars - who, let's be honest, will probably see it anyway - but actual famous people. Beyoncé, Busta Rhymes, Questlove, etc. - they all went to see it, and they all had great things to say because the rap was authentic and good. And because of the previous Obama connection, now it has word of mouth among the most powerful in Washington, D.C. Especially since its content deals with the boring muck of politics in an exciting way - vote-gathering, cabinet meetings, debt plans, etc - it's a big appeal to politicians. This means that early in its run it can brag that Barack Obama, Michelle Obama, and Dick Cheney all went to see it - and loved it. And once it gets all this attention - through big stars, through Ham4Ham, etc - it now has regular access to Late Night talk shows, which is practically unheard of for a Broadway musical these days. Snowball effect.

5) Networking. Lin-Manuel gets people involved. He auctioned off a rap to Jimmy Fallon, and he also brought on Questlove (Fallon's bandleader) to co-produce the Hamilton cast recording. Guess what his first late-night talk show appearance was on? Jimmy Fallon.

6) It's Really Fucking Good and/because It Respects Its Predecessors. All this publicity and exposure is meaningless if the quality isn't there. Lin-Manuel Miranda isn't just some guy who put rap into a musical; he's a guy who understands musicals innately. Musicals are an extremely difficult art form to write well - in a century of American musical theatre, only a handful of writers have been able to emerge as consistent creators of content that is both good and commercial. It's important that the show though it is stylistically groundbreaking, still follows a lot of rules of good musical theatre-writing, and borrows and then expands a lot of techniques from previous musicals. For example: the flashback in Act One that tells an historical event from a different person's perspective, and the moment in Act Two where multiple characters recount their takes on a secret political meeting in a single song? Those are both done using storytelling techniques from the obscure Sondheim musical Pacific Overtures. The musical is filled with nods to its predecessors where rather than reinventing the wheel, it takes something innovative that was done before and does it just a little bit better.

7) It's a High-Wire Act. Okay, so you wrote a good musical, you starred in it which gives you greater power to promote it, and now you're also good at word-of-mouth and social media. So what? What's a good show worth? Not much, really; plenty of spectacular shows open and close. Hamilton is also a high-wire act; it says "I'm going to tell a story about one of the least exciting and beloved Founding Fathers; I'm going to tell it through hip-hop and r&b; I'm going to tell it with daring theatrical devices and with a shifting perspective and timeline; I'm going to do it with a deliberately multicolored cast; and I'm going to do it without skimping on the policy, the internal politics, and the minute historical details." It's not just that it's good, but that it's good in a way that defies your expectations. It sets the bar impossibly high, and for the most part (I have some minor quibbles with it, after all) it totally clears the bar. Stephen Colbert described the experience of watching the first act as being amazed that any of this show works at all, and then being continuously surprised that it's still working.

Anyway, I think that covers it. If it were as easy as "It's a really good story" or "The music is great", then there would be musicals this big every season. There aren't. It's more than that.

Edit to add: 8) Listenability for Casuals. A musical theatre score has a hard job to do. It has to evoke a world, characters, time, place, dramatic action, etc. Ever since the split between popular music and musical theatre music, it has been more and more difficult to do all these things while also incorporating music that may not be well-suited to dramatic storytelling. A song that sounds totally badass may not actually work onstage (this is why Jesus Christ Superstar is such an awesome record, and such a mediocre play), and a song that brings down the fucking house in the theatre may just feel kind of "easy listening" or old hat to someone listening to the record who doesn't know its theatrical context. Hamilton uses contemporary music as its language, and it happens to do so very well. This makes it accessible and attractive to people who may not normally want to see musicals. (I should note that this is not an easy thing to reproduce, and that using it as a gauge for what to do for future shows creates a musical straightjacket for future writers and storytellers - we can't just say "oh, let's use more pop and hip-hop in musicals!" as if that will work for every story.)

ELI5: Why do cars travel in packs on the highway, even when there are no traffic stops to create groups? by DeNooYah in explainlikeimfive

[–]GiftOfHemroids 48 points49 points  (0 children)

For a different answer than the others on here, I actually intentionally try to stay in a pack.

When I'm travelling somewhere further than an hour away, I like to speed. Almost every time I do, I encounter a couple of other cars speeding similarly, weaving through traffic similarly, and we usually end up sticking together for a while.

I don't know if it's intentional on their end, but I do it because i feel like there's less of a chance of me getting pulled over if im in a small group of speeders.

Edit: Thank you, stranger!

ELI5: Why do cars travel in packs on the highway, even when there are no traffic stops to create groups? by DeNooYah in explainlikeimfive

[–]kodack10 3268 points3269 points  (0 children)

The interesting thing about traffic is that it obeys many of the rules of fluid dynamics, behaving like a liquid in a confined space.

This works because cars, like water molecules, don't compress. Traffic on a highway behaves a lot like water in a pipe. Not all traffic moves at the same rate, but when faster moving traffic encounters slower moving traffic, it has to slow down because 2 cars can't be in the same space at the same time. When the car ahead accelerates or moves out of the way, it takes time for the cars behind to take advantage of it and cars farther away take even longer, so the change in speed appears to move like a wave on the ocean, starting at the front, and working its way backwards.

This delay in passing acts a little like a standing wave and it lasts until either all the cars move at the same speed, or move far enough away from each other not to impede each other.

Now say that pockets like that are spread out on an otherwise empty highway, and some person in a sports car wants to get out from behind them so they can drive as fast as they want. They too have to slow down, temporarily joining the pack of cars, adding to it's size, until they can get out from behind it and drive on. But then they run into another pack of slower cars, and the process repeats.

So even cars that don't want to drive together, find themselves driving together because of physics.

That's true for all drivers. There are some drivers though that seek groups of cars on purpose. Either for safety, on a long desert road a breakdown by yourself can be dangerous, but if you have company... Or in order to drive faster than the speed limit and hope that the other cars either see the troopers first, or get pulled over instead of them. That is a flocking behavior that prey species use to protect against predators.

So in a way some of it is the physics of liquids, and some of it is the behavioral survival strategies of antelope on an African Savannah.

ELI5: Why do cars travel in packs on the highway, even when there are no traffic stops to create groups? by DeNooYah in explainlikeimfive

[–]wtfINFP 8894 points8895 points  (0 children)

I just thought it was because I was the natural-born leader of the carmada.

Edit: Thanks for the gold!!

For those worried about clogging traffic, a carmada is when you are traveling at a slightly higher speed than the other cars while you are in the middle lane on a 6 or 7 lane freeway in low traffic. When you look in the rear view mirror, you can see the other cars flanking you on all sides. The overall effect is that of a tightly-formed armada of cars sailing into battle with you at the helm.

ELI5: Why do flies constantly risk their lives by landing on and flying around me, even when I’ve had a few swipes at them? by Lochm8 in explainlikeimfive

[–]theonefoster 555 points556 points  (0 children)

Seems not to be true. It's a figure that's quoted in several places around the internet, but BBC's More or Less specialises in confirming or refuting viral statistics, and they say this one is way off. Ants only come in at around 40 billion kg, where humans for comparison weigh something like 350 billion kilograms (most of which comes from your mum). So even if you just consider the combined mass of ants and humans and ignore everything else, they're less than 10% of the biomass. Add in every other land animal and they're going to go way down into the tiny fractions of a percent.


ELI5: Why do flies constantly risk their lives by landing on and flying around me, even when I’ve had a few swipes at them? by Lochm8 in explainlikeimfive

[–]Mayor__Defacto 250 points251 points  (0 children)

Well, fighters in the star-wars universe perform the same function as screen ships in mahanian naval doctrine.

The goal is to have dominance by cannon count, and defend the big, cannon-carrying ships (Star Destroyers) with screens (TIE fighters).

The problem the Empire had was a lack of screen types - they essentially had the equivalent of a fleet of battleships with a bunch of rhibs to screen for them. They needed mid-sized ships to screen for them (in a fleet based on firepower, you want a small core of super-powerful but not individually important ships, surrounded by a layer of armored, but more mobile ships, surrounded by a layer of nimble, but still armored ships, surrounded by a layer of expendable, inexpensive, fast ships - all of this assuming a fleet vs fleet confrontation).

Essentially; battleships > heavy cruisers > light cruisers > destroyers, with each screening for the next largest.

Now we operate by a similar doctrine, with the aircraft carrier replacing the battleship and the heavy cruisers and destroyers largely replaced by light cruisers (as much as we call them destroyers, the current USN destroyers are better described as light cruisers). The empire had a bunch of combination aircraft carriers-battleships, and had no smaller cruisers to screen for the larger vessels.

ELI5: how do embassies work? by 21CyberGamer in explainlikeimfive

[–]rewboss 285 points286 points  (0 children)

An embassy is a building where the ambassador works. An ambassador is a representative of a foreign country.

At its most basic, and ambassador is a sort of messenger -- in fact, the word "ambassador" comes from a very old Celtic word that meant "messenger" or "servant".

For example, the French ambassador to the US works at the French embassy at 4101 Reservoir Rd NW in Washington D.C. His job is to officially represent the French government. That is, if the US government needs to say something really important to the French government, instead of jetting over to France, they can just summon the French ambassador. Everything they say to him, they are saying directly to the French government.

In addition to that, the embassy is also tasked with looking after its own citizens. If, for example, you're in a foreign country and your passport is stolen, you can go to your country's embassy, prove your identity and get travel documents so you can get back home. If you're arrested for something, your embassy can help you find a lawyer, ensure that your rights are respected and -- if the charges are plainly ridiculous or you're being badly mistreated somehow -- try to secure your release.

If you hear that a government has "summoned the ambassador of country X", that usually means they want to severely criticize that government. If a government expels the ambassador of country X, that means the two countries are no longer on speaking terms.

There's a myth that an embassy is technically on the soil of the country it represents; i.e., if you go into the French embassy in Washington DC, you're technically in France. This is not true.

But there is a concept of "diplomatic immunity". Think of, for example, the US Embassy in North Korea. If the North Korean police kept going in there for whatever reason, you'd start to think that maybe the North Koreans were interfering with or spying on the work of the staff. So there is an agreement that countries should not interfere with the work of foreign diplomats: the police, army, even the fire brigade don't go into an embassy compound without the permission of that embassy's government. It's not illegal, but it could start a war. Also, diplomats don't have their official briefcases searched by customs, and so on.

But because of this diplomatic immunity, it's an open secret that "diplomatic staff" are often actually spies. And even where they're not spies, they often can't be prosecuted for criminal acts: there are cases of diplomats literally getting away with murder because the murder was committed inside the embassy and that government refused permission for the host country's police to investigate it.

That's why many countries have expelled Russian diplomatic staff recently. This came in the wake of the poisoning of a former Russian spy and his daughter in the UK, an act which is strongly suspected to have been done on the orders of the Kremlin. If so, it would likely have been committed by somebody under cover of diplomatic immunity: they could have smuggled the nerve agent in diplomatic baggage, and the British police won't be allowed to arrest them or even investigate them. But what the British can do -- and did do -- is to declare some of the diplomats "persona non grata", meaning they must leave the country.

This first of all is basically a way of punishing Russia. But also, it's hoped that at least some of those diplomats are actually spies, and that by expelling them, the British have made it harder for the Russians to carry out further similar attacks.

EDIT: Thanks for the gold.

ELI5 : Why does travelling make you feel so tired when you've just sat there for hours doing nothing? by this-is-plaridel in explainlikeimfive

[–]CEPTyler 13.2k points13.2k points  (0 children)

Former flight medic here. There is lots of data on the "stressors of flight" (many of these stressors are also present in automobiles). As the vehicle moves, the sway and direction change cause you to have to keep yourself upright. These micro movements cause your muscles to be continuously working (even if you don't realize it). The US Air Force has done studies report conistent exposure to aircraft vibrations can lead to fatuige and increased chance of health problems.

ELI5: What is the difference between DTaP, DT, Tdap, and Td? by AsnGurl in explainlikeimfive

[–]worldbound0514 2 points3 points  (0 children)

Ok, so all the vaccines you mentioned protect against tetanus. Some of them are given at different ages and one is just an old formulation not used any more.

Dtap is the standard vaccine given to kids under age 7. It has a larger dose of diptheria protection and smaller doses of tetanus and pertussis- this formulation provides the best protection for small children.

DT was an older vaccine given to small kids that only protected against diptheria and tetanus. It isn't given any more because we have a better vaccine which protects again pertussis as well.

Tdap is given to older kids and adults. It has a larger dose of tetanus- hence the capital T. It should be given every 10 years as an adult. It is usually required to enter middle school.

Td was the adult vaccine given every 10 years as a booster. It doesn't protect against pertussis- whooping cough.

When they say tetanus booster, they probably mean the Tdap if you are an adult.

Edit: thanks for the gold, kind stranger!

ELI5: How do nurses, drug users, etc inject a drug directly into a vein? How do they know the needle tip hasn't gone through the vein or even missed it completely? by EngagingFears in explainlikeimfive

[–]The_Last_Paladin 7139 points7140 points  (0 children)

It was a weird feeling. The guys looked at me weird whenever we got first aid retraining and I volunteered to go first to administer the IV drip. I never told anyone that I just really liked feeling that "pop" when I got the needle in there just right. But I suppose the erection probably gave it away.

Edit1: Thank you for the gold, you beautiful person!

Edit2: A few people have asked what kind of first-aid training involves IV administration. I don't know whether it's corps-wide or if the corpsmen just pulled some strings at my unit, but when I was on active duty with the Marine Corps we had yearly combat lifesaver courses, which for the most part is the same as the usual first aid, but was tailored for the kind of injuries common on the battlefield, like gunshot wounds and massive bleeding. Part of that was learning to administer an IV for fluid replacement.

ELI5: Why does gasoline pricing produce such acute price sensitivity in consumers, despite the negligible differences in totals over filling an entire tank? by Fizzy_Electric in explainlikeimfive

[–]kmartshoppr 831 points832 points  (0 children)

I assumed the answer would be down here somewhere and just stopped by to upvote. Unfortunately it isn’t, so here you go in true ELI5 fashion:

A long time ago a man had a gas station and wanted to sell more gas (and soda and chips) than everyone else, but he needed a way to get people to notice his business. Of course, he could’ve taken out advertisements in the newspaper, filmed commercials for TV, and even had someone dance on the street corner with a sign advertising his gas station, but all of those would be expensive. And besides, his competitors had more money and could do even more advertising than he could.

But the man was clever and he knew two things for sure: people love to get a good deal and he had the cheapest gas in town. So the man posted a giant sign in front of his store with his (lowest in town) price. Now when people went to the other gas stations, they felt they were being duped and business started to roll in. Of course, the other gas stations had no choice but to lower their prices, but by this time everyone in town assumed that the man with the giant sign MUST have the best prices since he HAD A HUGE FREAKING SIGN with his gas prices posted outside. So of course all the other gas stations built their own signs as well.

As with many changes, this one had consequences that no one thought of at the time. Because by advertising price above all else, the man with the gas station had accidentally taught his customers that everything else was irrelevant and that clean bathrooms, good food, and better quality gas were simply gimmicks designed to distract them from the lowest price which was (they were sure) the only thing that mattered. And now all gas stations must advertise their prices, for fear of being seen as the “rip-off” option in town, and since most people aren’t sure how much good gasoline might save them in the long run, and they have difficulty putting a price on any of the other features of a gas station, many still choose their gas the way they were taught to all those years ago by that first man with a sign. (/ELI5)

This is a subject taught in any marketing school as a cautionary tale about choosing how you compete in your market. Once you teach your customers that price is the only important decision factor, it’s hard to unteach that. A great example of this is airlines which for years only showed their price and not amenities, seat space, or tv screens when shopping for flights. As a result, customer unfriendly practices took hold and Spirit airlines was born.

So how much does gas shopping actually save you? The people in this thread referencing differences of $1 during the year are only fooling themselves (I can’t buy gas at July prices in January no matter where I go). So excluding truck stops (whose high prices tend to reflect a less price sensitive community who value other amenities provided and who aren’t paying the bill themselves), how much do you actually stand to save?

The average American car gets roughly 25mpg and the average American driver drives roughly 1,125 miles every month. Let’s also assume a relatively liberal difference among quality gas pumps (discount gas is another issue you can read about here ) and say you can save 5 cents per gallon. Thats 45 gallons of gas for a grand total of $2.25 in savings for the month.

Having worked in the field of marketing for a decade, I can tell you with confidence that there are VERY few industries that inspire the same kind of constant research and brand switching to get a $27 savings on a purchase which totals over $1,300 yearly on average. But customers have been trained to make this decision on price, and with electric cars becoming more and more common, I suspect the gasoline industry will die altogether before anyone can change the dynamic.

Light at the end of the tunnel: check out Buc-ee’s. I don’t know how widespread they are, but they are all over Texas and they will change what you think about gas stations.

Edit: Spelling Edit2: Can’t say that I’m surprised my first Reddit Gold contains a Buc-ee’s reference. Thank you kind stranger.

ELI5: Why do people with traumatic injuries often die from shock rather than from their injuries? by FullmetalAltruist in explainlikeimfive

[–]account_not_valid 702 points703 points  (0 children)

David Attenborough:

And here, finally, we see inside the amazing world, of a bunch of Fucks.

The Motherfucker has toiled endlessly to provide for her one and only Fucky, and now she lays down, completely spent. She has no more fucks to give.

But all is not lost.

Her Fucky has sprouted it's wings, and can finally leave the nest. It is now, truly, a flying Fuck. Magnificent.

ELI5: Why do (some, many, all?) people get "emotionally unstable" when they are extremely tired? by hmpfdoctorino in explainlikeimfive

[–]CommenceTheWentz 2386 points2387 points x2 (0 children)

Humans have many different emotions, that are at different levels of cognitive ability. For example, fear is generally known to be the simplest emotion. It’s controlled entirely by one very evolutionarily ancient part of the brain, the amygdala. Almost every animal with a brain has one of these, and they all feel fear. This is why fear is not affected by being tired (e.g. if you’re driving after an all nighter, and you have a near collision, you’ll still feel scared).

After that, the ranking of emotions gets rather nebulous. Loosely speaking, happiness is fairly simple, as it’s just an activation of dopamine/serotonin reward systems (again, fairly well conserved among many different species). Sadness exists in other animals, but not as many, since it’s a little more complex. Generally, sadness requires some kind of understanding that things are not as they should be, or could be a different way, which not many non humans can grasp. Things like jealousy, hatred, pride... these are probably exclusive to humans, as they require a fairly high level understanding of other people’s emotions as well as our own.

This is a very interesting topic to me, so another general point: often people assume that intelligence correlated directly with emotional ability in animals. This isn’t exactly true. The purpose of emotion, from an evolutionary POV, is to allow for social bonds to form between animals, and allow for a sort of shorthand communication in groups. Essentially, if I show that I’m sad to someone in my pack, there is a chance that he or she will help me. If I feel and then show submissiveness, a stronger member of the pack might decide not to kick me out or kill me. For solitary animals, these feelings would only be a hindrance, so it’s likely that they don’t really have emotions in the sense that we understand them.

Octopuses, for example, are very intelligent animals and can solve complicated puzzles, devise complex hunting strategies, and even learn by pure observation. However, they’re solitary animals and don’t show any evidence of having emotions. On the other hand, you have dogs, who are not particularly intelligent as far as similar mammals go, but are practically geniuses in an emotional sense. Their strong pack bond with the most emotionally advanced animal (us) has made them very good at picking up on subtle emotional cues and understanding what to do in those cases. If your dog sees you’re angry, he will either slink away (if you’re alone) or get ready to fight (if he sees what you’re angry at). If you’re sad, many dogs will come cuddle with you and bring you their toys in an attempt to cheer you up. And any dog owner knows that dogs very likely feel sad or angry themselves from time to time (and if they don’t, they do a convincing enough approximation that it doesn’t really matter)

And if anybody is still reading, this all comes with a caveat. Humans’ unique ability to think about what could have been, to anticipate the future, to imagine all manner of horrors and wonders... all implies that we probably feel emotions differently from most animals. For example, consider an antelope that narrowly escapes a lion attack. When the lion pounces, it definitely feels a sudden rush of fear, prompting it to run for its life. As soon as the danger is passed, the fear mostly subsided. A human doesn’t just feel fear from the lion, though. A human can distinctly picture the pain of sharp claws tearing your flesh and a crushing pair of jaws closing around your neck. We fear that pain. We can imagine our mother crying because her baby got eaten by a lion, and we fear that as well. And long after the lion is gone, we can wake up screaming at night because our imagination just won’t leave us alone. Basically, our very fertile imagination probably means that our feeling of emotion is enhanced compared to other animals

ELI5: What's cholesterol and why is it good or bad for it to be high or low? by eeemiellwhy in explainlikeimfive

[–]losark 3152 points3153 points  (0 children)

Cholesterol drives around your body in cars. Some of the cars are really small and drive around your body really well. These are the good cholesterol.

Some of the cars are really big and sometimes crash and pile up on your body's streets, or arteries. This makes traffic in your body really slow which causes other problems. This is the bad cholesterol.

Remember, it's not the cholesterol that is bad or good, its what they use to get around your body. The cars.

edit: I'm just reinterpreting what the smart person up there said. I can't really elaborate.

Edit: gilded for piggybacking the work of others?? Only in America! Thank you kind stranger.

ELI5: How can turtles eat food underwater without swallowing too much water? by itsNOSAJ in explainlikeimfive

[–]Ballistic_Turtle 4989 points4990 points  (0 children)

Aquatic turtles DO swallow water when they eat, and actually can't swallow without water as they do not produce saliva. But they have a specially evolved esophagus that acts as a sort of pre-stomach. They fill the esophagus with food and water, and then constrict it to expel all the water while keeping the food inside. The food and a small amount of water then enter the stomach.

Edit: Three years on reddit and I finally got gilded while I was asleep, and for something turtle related :D. Obligatory "Thank you kind stranger", and "this blew up". Seriously though, thank you. Volunteer to be the one who protec.

ELI5 how a helicopter tilts forward/backwards by Alias-_-Me in explainlikeimfive

[–]Ivan_Whackinov 19 points20 points  (0 children)

Yep. It's done through a thing called swashplates. They are a pair of plates with bearings between them. The top plate spins and is attached to the rotor blades, while the bottom plate don't spin. Pushing the bottom plate up or down or changing its angle forces the top (spinning) plate to do the same thing. The top plate then forces the blades to change their angle of attack as it follows the lower fixed plate around. It's a bit difficult to explain in a few sentences, but this is a pretty good animation that shows how it works.

The blades follow a smooth path and gradually change pitch as they move around the circle, they don't suddenly change angle of attack at any point.

Why can't I make a fist when I first wake up? by [deleted] in explainlikeimfive

[–]Bedpans 6 points7 points  (0 children)

Hey there, ShotMarvinInTheFace. There are a bunch of reasons why it feels like you can't close your fist when you wake up. First, understand that it can be a perfectly normal occurrence, but if it progressively gets worse, or suddenly appears without warning, you should talk to your physician, as it could be a symptom of something worse.

That being said, there are two things you need to understand first, when figuring out why your hand is acting this way: one, how muscles work, and two, how the body works when your sleep.

In order to contract, a skeletal muscle needs two basic ingredients: a nervous impulse, or electrical signal from a nearby nerve, and electrolytes, specifically Calcium and Potassium. After the nerve signal is sent, calcium enters the muscle on a cellular, and the potassium leaves. When the muscle relaxes, they change places. A muscle must have all of these things to contract, but only needs potassium to relax. This is why when you have low potassium, you get awful muscle cramps!

Second is when a person sleeps a good night's sleep, they aren't doing a whole lot of moving around. The body stays still to heal, and the heart slows down (because there's nothing strenuous about lying still and breathing). Now the heartbeat is still more than enough to keep blood going to all your body, but not nearly as efficiently as if you were awake. So your body actually decides what needs the most oxygen electrolytes, and lets the rest fall to the wayside. As a result, the muscles in your limbs (like the ones in your forearm that move your fingers) get less oxygen and electrolytes than the rest of your body.

But now you're awake! Now you need all that stuff. Well that's great, but those things take a minute, especially if you didn't wake naturally. Your body have to resume it's active duties, and eventually will get the calcium and potassium back to your limbs, but until then, you get weak hands! Were you to say, wake up naturally, well rested, there's less chance of hand weakness. Also, if you were to wake up suddenly, say to a fire or any danger, your body releases ** epinephrine**, which kicks your body into Incredible Hulk mode. Your heart's beating so fast that if you have the electrolytes, they'll get there.

Hope this helps!

ELI5: waking up it’s hard to tense your hand into a fist, but as the day goes on it becomes easier to to clench a fist, Why? by holymolyholycow in explainlikeimfive

[–]MamaO2D4 3171 points3172 points  (0 children)

/u/Bedpans had a very detailed explanation of this in an old ELI5.

edit: holy buckets. Most updoots I've ever received, and it's for giving a link to someone else's knowledge.

Thank you kind redditor for the gold. I've paid it forward, so hopefully one day /u/Bedpans signs back in to a pleasant surprise.

ELI5: How does the justice system compel a defendant to participate in a civil case? If someone wants to sue, what stops the other party from just saying no by [deleted] in explainlikeimfive

[–]likes2gofast 14 points15 points  (0 children)

Let's pretend a guy named Steve sues a guy named Greg, because Steve thinks that Greg owes him money, but Greg disagrees.

So Steve files a lawsuit, by hiring a lawyer and paying him to make paperwork, and file it with the court who also charges a fee based on how many dollars Steve is asking for.

Greg gets served by a process server, who is a person who comes to find you and says "Are you Greg?" and of course he is, so he is handed legal papers letting him know he is being served with a lawsuit.

Greg can ignore the lawsuit or fight the lawsuit. If he ignores the lawsuit, Steve will get a default judgment and the judge will say "Well Steve, he didn't show up to talk about it, so you should have $10,000 like you wanted". The Steve would pay the Sheriff $300 to come to Greg's business and put a padlock on the front door until Greg decided to pay Steve. If Greg tried to enter the building, then he would be arrested by the Sheriff.

Greg decided he did not agree with Steve, and hired a lawyer to fight the lawsuit. Greg's lawyer wrote out all the reasons why Greg thought he did not owe Steve money - the main reason being that Greg never bought anything or borrowed anything from Steve; Greg's friend did - but Greg's friend did not have any money, so Steve wanted Greg to pay for his friend's debt - even though Greg had sent a certified mail letter to Steve years before saying that he would not pay Steve, and Steve had received that letter, and had read and understood that letter.

So when court day happened, the Judge listened to both sides, and then said to Steve - "You got the letter, and understood what it said?" and Steve said "Yes". The Judge said "You are kind of dumb, and Greg is right. Steve, pay Greg for his costs you idiot". So Steve wrote Greg a check for $5625.00

Fuck you Steve, you idiot. I told you not to lend Rick money, and you gave the drug addict money anyway. Dumbass.

edit: The $5625 was the money I had spent on my lawyer, and other costs related to my defense. Steve is an idiot, but paid within 14 days. He spent at least $15,000 to sue for $10,000. Idiot.

2nd edit: This story is about two people who live in the same county. If you are in different states, then the court case should be filed where the sue-ee has money/assets/etc. If they have no assets, why would you sue them? Can't get blood from a stone...