The RJ-45 jack on your computer and router each have 8 pins arranged inside them to connect to 8 pins on the RJ-45 connector of your cable. The one in your router may have a pin or so just enough out of place to effect the quality of the connection between it and the plug on your cable that whatever marginal signal is getting through whatever was the problem in your cable wasn't enough to establish a good link. Your computer's jack may be in better condition, with straighter pins.
Or maybe the other way around. Maybe the computer jack's pins were out of alignment in a way complimentary to those of the cable's but not your router's.
Who knows? Layer 1 is hard. There is a reason there is no tertiary education specialty that focuses exclusively on layer 2 or layer 3, but electrical engineering is totally a thing.
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