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There isn't much to tune on the Nighthawk's at all. Basically, you can change the RF channel and that's about it. On the UAP, there are tons of knobs to twist. However, none of that is relevant now.

  1. The UAP and the Nighthawk have vastly different antennas. Both are a 3x3 radio configuration, but the 6 monopoles on the Nighthawk have a vastly different radiation pattern vs. the PCB trace and monopoles on the UAP. Specifically, the radiation pattern on the UAP is designed to minimize the size of the backlobes, whereas the Nighthawk emits a large taurus-shaped pattern. How do you have the UAP and Nighthawk oriented?
  2. It's poor test design to have both the UAP and Nighthawk on at that same time. Channel 4 on the Nighthawk overlaps with Channel 1 on the UAP pro, even if you are using VHT20 channel widths. Also, even if they are not overlapping, if you put the Nighthawk and the UAP physically close to each other, the nearby RF will cause one or both of the WAPs' radios to desensitize.
  3. The UAP-AC-PRO is rated for 450 Mbit/s PHY on the 2.4GHz band and 1300 MBit/s on the 5GHz AC band. What band are you testing with when comparing the UAP vs Nighthawk?
  4. Did you enable Guest portal on your controller? Enabling the Guest Portal on the UAP-AC-PRO will cause a slight reduction in bandwidth due to the overhead of enabling the captive portal on the WAP.
Original Poster1 point · 18 hours ago

I did some speed tests but I'm limited by my ISP. The unifi is consistantly slightly slower by about 3mbps though.

The reason for this post is that I'm really struggling to find what I am missing for using consumer grade nighthawks instead. I can lower the transmit power of the nighthawk, and I can set them as AP's just like ubiquiti. The ubiquiti cost me $130 each plus extra for poe injector. The nighthawks are $99 right now.

Assuming I can tune both systems, what does the ubiquiti offer that the nighthawks can't?

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Setup an iPerf server on a desktop or other wired-connected machine and then do iPerf testing between your wireless clients and your iPerf server. WAN testing has far to many variables to be statistically significant when comparing WAP performance.

Those errors are transmit / receive errors. This graph is a function of the relative RF noise in your environment. Have you checked to make sure the WAP channels you are on are not overlapping with nearby WAPs?

The heat damage to those tube sockets is non-trivial. While you are in replacing the screen and bias resistors, you should think about replacing some of those tube sockets while you have it all apart. As others have said, if you are red plating power tubes, your bias is WAAAAAAAAAAAY off, so you'll want to inspect and replace all of the components in the power tube bias circuit, at a minimum. Also, find a local repair shop that can check your power tubes, as you likely have one or more that has an internal short. When power tubes short internally, but don't fail outright, you'll get this type of problem where the tube can draw far more power than normal, resulting in fried bias components, screen resistors, and blown fuses.

Original Poster9 points · 2 days ago

Fixes the linkcheck crash which was causing some people grief.

PAY ATTENTION TO THE NOTE THERE, it's important to upgrade to a controller version not impacted by device cache problems prior to next provision of USG. A lot of the reported 4.4.28 problems weren't actually problems with that firmware, rather a controller problem awaiting next provision to exhibit itself (which happened post-upgrade).

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For those of you too lazy to read the forum posting, there is a pretty important note right at the top:

Note: If you are running a 5.8.x or 5.9.x controller, you should upgrade to 5.8.30 or 5.9.26 (or newer if available at the time you're reading this) prior to upgrading USG.

SYN flood him and if he doesn't ACK, ACL his ass.

Just like when you accidentally your entire post to /r/networkmemes


Hello All! My company is looking to replace our existing and rapidly aging Cisco WLC-based wireless fleet with Unifi WAPs. The current plan is to host a controller in our Azure footprint and to give it 8 vCPU and 16GB of RAM. Here's the tricky part: My company has 45 sites and there will be over 600 WAPs deployed when this project is complete. The WAPs we are planning on using are a mix of UAP-SHDs in the large / high-density sites -and- UAP-HD and UAP-AC-PROs in the smaller / standalone sites.

Does anyone out there have any feedback on running controllers with multiple/many sites? I would also love to hear some real-world feedback on the scalability of the Unifi Controller when the number of devices increases.


I have two and both of them are like this. It's normal.

3 points · 20 days ago

Looks like home. ❤️

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That's not Capehart Rd., is it?

How do you like the D&M? The Duelist looks cool. As does the Steel String (I think that’s what it’s called).

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I love my D&M. I use it as the first stop in my signal chain and it follows into an Xotic EP Boost which make for a lovely and thick crunch sound. The boost side of the D&M shelves off a ton of low end, but I love the mid hump in it. So, the EP boost is a full-range boost and has the effect of adding most of the low-end back, but it seems tighter, which is nice. Also, D&M boost into a Plimsoul will make you smile for days!

Original Poster19 points · 21 days ago

Alright. So I’ve been playing for a long while and my guitar playing has generally been pretty plug & play. Most of my musical influences were straight ahead punk rock, metal & blues so I never needed much more than an OD, reverb, delay & distortion. Fast forward many years and I have kids, no time for bands etc so I figured id lean into my new “I’ll be playing solo for a long while” reality & invest in some pedals so I can expand my palette & have some fun.

Chain starts at Wampler mini ego > PolyTune mini > mini 535 Wah > Pitch Fork > Maxon OD9 > Hoof > Donner Jet flanger > Phase 95 > Mesa boogie Mark 5:25.

The Julia > Carbon Copy > Dark Star > boss FRV1 go through the amp’s loop.

The Mini ego is before my tuner for “make it fit” reasons. Initially I had it swapped with the tuner but switched them around so the switch on the right of the tuner was actually accessible (I play drop tunings too and it comes in handy).

Anyway. I’m pretty happy with the crew minus a few small nits. The Donner feels cheap: the knobs just feel like they’re gonna fall off or are on “sideways”. But for < $30 it’s fine. The Julia might be a regret purchase. Gonna have to spend a few hours to bond with it. It’s high quality & sounds good but maybe I’m just not into chorus... we’ll see.

The Fender Reverb might go. I’ve had that pedal for years and I might just be over it. I’m considering another reverb but one that can get some of the atmospheric stuff going. Ya, the Dark Star does that but it’s more on the “haunted house” tip than ambient. Maybe an Afterneath or at least something like a Hall of Fame - something that’s less “one trick”.

Also looking for an excuse and space to get a Night Wire.

If anyone has suggestions for pedals that are “fun” & make strange yet not-too-insane sounds let me know.

Edit: power is supplied by 2 Strymon Ojais, chained. Board is a Rockboard with a RockMod 1. Patch cables EBS gold

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Dude, are you my twin?

+Hall of Fame. Is is a lot of pedal for the space and price. I also have the Julia and went through a bit of buyer's remorse. However, once you play with it, it also has some sounds in it that stray pretty far from traditional chorus. You can dial up the "Black hole sun" tone pretty easily and still use it as a traditional tremolo.

Ok, I’m really jonesing for a Julia right now and I’m a little concerned that you both are saying it’s a regret purchase. What caused the buyers remorse?

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I thought it was a regret purchase until I figured out how to use it. Now that I understand the controls, HOLY HELL is this pedal musical. If nothing else, turn the depth all the way down and turn the pedal on. It does something magical to the EQ, kind of the same way an Echorec does.

Another tip: turn on an OD pedal on low gain to the point where it only breaks up when strummed HARD, then set the Julia for tremolo mode and tune down to drop-D and enjoy the magic.


Hello all! I moved to Albuquerque a few months ago and now need a new car. I have heard numerous stories from neighbors about the taxes assessed when buying a car in NM vs in Arizona or Colorado. Is there any truth to this? From my research, it seems that NM charges 3% Sales Tax + 3% Excise tax, but Arizona and Colorado seem to have similar tax rates. Is it actually cheaper to buy a car in AZ or CO and bring it back to New Mexico, or is that just a myth?


Excise tax? On a car?

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Original Poster1 point · 21 days ago

Yes. NM assesses a 3% excise tax on car sales. See here.

The only way I could fathom this working is if he's spoofing MAC addresses of known active modems while actively keeping those modems suppressed from trying to authenticate again, but around here I know a modem is tied to a specific junction so it can't be activated outside of that road/development

It's more likely he just has a hotspot defeater and it connects to public wi-fi

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I'm calling BS on this. The upstream multiplexers lock your port to your mac address. This is why most often when you replace your cable modem, you must call Comcast/Cox/Cableone to tell them the mac of your new cable modem, otherwise no internets for you. This is a low-effort scam.

28 points · 25 days ago

Even if he did, it would most likely be fixed pretty quickly for a ISP or that size.

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If he did, it would not be found within a WRT 54G.

vlan 69

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No kidding, that's my "Guest Internet" vlan. My company are 50 offices across 5 continents and each of them have vlan 69 servicing guests.

I'll show myself out....

2 points · 27 days ago · edited 25 days ago

Yep. AWS, GCP and Azure all have a free tier. You will be resource limited on those tiers, though.... so if you plan to run more than a handful of devices, you will need some RAM.

Original Poster1 point · 25 days ago

Yeah that's fine I don't mind paying for a higher tier, I was just looking I guess at the Ubiquiti hosting from them which was so expensive for a home vs a business.

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It is hella expensive. The pricing for a 100 WAP deployment is over $2000 USD / year. You can get a beefy virtual server in GCP, AWS or Azure for less than a third of that. It's sad because they can compete on hardware price, but with the crazy controller pricing, it is very difficult to make a value argument to my management.

I am doing a competitive bid right now for a 550 WAP deployment, comparing Aerohive against Ubiquiti. The only way that Ubiquiti wins right now is if I roll my own cloud controller in Azure.

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Why are you comparing a networked array to a single disk?

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Because OP was talking about writing files to a NAS. My point was that OP would hit physical limits writing to a spinning disk long before filling up a 10G link.

Well, this will depend on the discs involved as well as the structure of the array.

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For consumer-grade NAS units, not at all. If OP comes back and says that they have a $10K enterprise NAS sitting on their desk, then we can talk about it.

My company has a ton of consumer NAS units stuffed away in corners of the network when we once needed a random 5TB share for a one off project....and since then I have maintained control of those NAS units so u always have pockets of storage when required. I am here to tell you that no consumer NAS will ever get close to saturating a 10G link regardless of the spinning disk brand or RAID config. This is a physics problem. Think about it: even if you stuffed a consumer NAS with SSD drives, the next problem you will run into is the TCP bandwidth delay product. Now you have disks that can saturate the SATA bus, but TCP will prevent CIFS from generating enough throughput to saturate the link for a single session. If you reply back with "but what about multiple users/sessions", then I need to politely remind the court that OP is a home user, not a small company.

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12 points · 1 month ago

The AP... Is in the wrong orientation... Inside a metal cabinet.

If you got down into the chip level diags and watched all the work it's doing, trying to get a signal to devices. You'd see a chip cry.

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Ohh duh. Never thought about it. Going to steal that idea and pretend I came up with it.

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4 points · 1 month ago · edited 1 month ago

Use ser2net instead of minicom. I deployed RasPi with an 8-port USB hub and 8 USB console adapters. This allows my whole team to each connect to a different port at the same time.

EDIT: Sometimes I don't English so good.

Cat 2970 is a very old Layer2 switch that predates the Cat 2960-X product line. It was an oddball in Cisco's product line at the time as Cisco had the Cat 2950 and the higher spec 3560.

No, that cat is shocked someone is still deploying Cat 2970s. If cats have nine lives, 2970s have zero left.


Hello /r/guitar! Here is my first attempt at a pedalboard. My signal chain is as follows:

  • Guitar -> Exotic EP Booster -> Tone City Black Tea -> Plimsoul -> D&M Drive -> Boss Katana Artist
  • Effects loop: MXR Carbon Copy -> Walrus Julia -> TC Hall of Fame

Overall, I'm pretty pleased with the result, but I am still not convinced on the ordering of the delay, chorus and reverb. Any ideas?


Nice board, I also run into an EP booster, I love that thing.

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Original Poster1 point · 1 month ago

I completely agree! Sometimes I turn it down and leave it on all the time. That Echorec preamp makes such a lovely sound....

Samsies, it's the only pedal I have that's always on.

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Original Poster1 point · 1 month ago

yeah....that pedal is freaking magic. The EP boost into the Black Tea on low gain makes for the best crunch tone. Think vintage AC30 with a bit more low-mid bite. Soooo good...

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Tbh I own a jazzie with humbuckers and it fits my ‘personality’ in terms of individual aesthetics and play style. I’m big into shoegaze so yeah I like the jazzie look but my music is aggressive so single coils are a no go: would love try one with p90s but don’t have that kind of cash

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You are using the wrong single coil pickups. DiMarzio makes a hum-cancelling single coil called Fast Track 2 that is STUPID LOUD. I had this in the middle position of an Ibanez S5470 in-between two hummers.... the difference in volume between positions 5 and 3 was ludicrous.

Holy hell no one is answering the question. The answer is, yes, you can do this but it is tricky. The classical way to do this is to put in static routes that point at your tunnel interface and then default route everything else. If you are truly trying to only route just BitTorrent traffic down the vpn, you need something like Policy Based Routing in the Cisco world. The USG app detection engine is pretty good, but it doesn't yet have a means to do policy based/Layer 7 routing.

Based on your description of the network at your sites, your current network gear isn't running any dynamic routing protocols (OSPF, BGP, RIP, etc...). If you don't have a dynamic routing protocol in place, it will be very difficult to setup any kind of HA failover.

As far as what gear you need, that all depends on the following:

  • What is the distance between the sites?
  • How much bandwidth do you need between the sites?
  • Do you need the sites to connect to each other in a full-mesh (anybody can talk directly to anybody) or is it sufficient to trombone all traffic back to one central point/data center?

If you are looking for something with a nice GUI on it for configuration and management, Ubiquiti's Unifi system is pretty slick and not too intimidating for people who aren't network engineers as their primary job. For sites with less than 150 Mb/s of WAN throughput, their USG is a workhorse and you can hang two Internet connections off of it! If you need something a bit more robust, consider Palo Alto's PA-220 firewall. They are good up to about 250 Mbit/s throughput if you turn on all of the features, or up to 1 Gbit/s if you only do basic firewalling.

Short Range

If your sites are physically close to each other and have line-of-site between the buildings, here are few options that will connect your buildings together:

You will still need to establish some kind of routing protocol to handle the failover. OSPF is a pretty solid choice for this task and it works with pretty much all hardware vendors.

Long Range

If your sites are not close enough to use Wifi, microwave or point-to-point wireless links, you'll need a secondary WAN as your backup path. Here's an example to show you how I have done this in the past. Similar to you, all sites were a basic core switch connected to a pair of firewalls that were serving as WAN routers. One firewall was connected to a traditional ISP (Comcast/VZ FiOS/etc...) and the second firewall connected to a 4G LTE modem that provided a secondary path to the Internet. Over that 4G LTE link, the secondary firewall at each site established an IPSec VPN tunnel to my main site (Site 1 in the example) and all sites "met" at Site 1. The IPSec tunnel provided the dedicated path between the sites for "internal" networks and the primary firewall provided the main path to the Internet for users.

For my larger sites, I use a Cisco 819 4G LTE router as the backup.

For smaller sites, I a use a Netgear LB2120 4G LTE router as the backup.

I can recall some "best practice" that indicated it's best not to use VLAN1 at all, pretty much (never fully understood why). In your case, VLAN1 is actually a black hole VLAN (as some people call it) since it doesn't go anywhere, so it's OK. The point of all this is to avoid VLAN hopping and some other obscure attacks that "could" be performed by manipulating Ethernet frames

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Actually, there are some very good reasons to avoid using Vlan 1. Some vendor gear specifically requires that MST instance zero is always on Vlan 1. I had some ancient Avaya switches in a section of the network that connected to customer/vendor equipment. Leaking MST spanning-tree info to those devices is not a good look.

From a security standpoint, you shouldn't be using the same native vlan for any trunks as it gives an attacker access to the far reaches of your switching plane. When I worked as a DoD contractor, I watched a member of NSA Red Team exploit this design flaw with shocking success. In my current environment, we have a range of junk vlans that we use for trunk native vlans in a kind of point-to-point topology. Any switch with multiple trunks cannot use the same native vlan for any two trunks.

Where is this setting? Are you referring to the VLAN setting the unifi devices can communicate on?

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You can find the settings under Devices -> Your AP -> Config -> Serivces -> Management VLAN

See this screen cap.

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Oh man, I feel for you. Those 3Com switches were so failure prone. We babied those thing for years and dealt with the flaky autosense (ended up wiring down every port) and buggy STP before we finally ditched them.

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We didn't keep them long enough to get into any of the weird edge cases. The weirdest thing I saw was a bug where a few code versions would leak frames between different vlans. The first time I saw this, I was doing a live Ethereal capture with a 3Com engineer (we purchased some consulting hours with the equipment buy). I was sniffing a server DMZ vlan when I saw frames floating by that had nothing to do with the DMZ. Jimmies were ruffled and that 3Com rep did some damn impressive tap dancing that day.

We replaced most of that gear with Extreme Networks Black Diamond switches a few months later and then hated life for a completely different set of reasons. sigh

LOL we ended up replacing some of the 3Coms with Extreme gear too. Only a couple of pieces though, most of it was replaced with Cisco gear.

All in all Cisco kind of filtered to the top not through amazing features or great value, but just basic competence.

Although I know some of our Cisco gear leaks VLAN traffic from time to time too, especially ARP packets. I find all sorts of surprises on the ARP tables.

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Over the last 15+ years of my career, that has been my experience, as well... Cisco Has traded on the value of TAC for years, but I think the market is catching up. I recently deployed a Nexus 9k / Catalyst 9K solution to three colo data centers and discovered that IOS-XE has some showstopper bugs when doing just basic things with 40g interfaces. Basic, as in Layer 2 dot1q trunking, port auto-negotiation, etc.... my experience with TAC was so craptacular that the TAC rep kept asking if I'd be willing to change my network topology, without actually telling me why this was necessary. After 30 minutes of back-forth with this rep, I finally exploded in white-hot rage, "Why in the hell are you asking me to change the design instead of fixing this broke-a$$ code???", to which he finally admitted that the Cat 9300 40g card escaped QA without regression testing against most basic features. So, the Cat 9300 40g card will not support dot1q trunks until sometime after IOS-XE 16.6.4. Thanks Cisco. Smh

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March 12, 2012
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