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mvea 1 point

Journal Reference:

Jean M. Twenge, Gabrielle N. Martin, W. Keith Campbell.

Decreases in Psychological Well-Being Among American Adolescents After 2012 and Links to Screen Time During the Rise of Smartphone Technology.

Emotion, Jan 22, 2018;

DOI: 10.1037/emo0000403

Link: http://psycnet.apa.org/doiLanding?doi=10.1037%2Femo0000403

Abstract:

In nationally representative yearly surveys of United States 8th, 10th, and 12th graders 1991–2016 (N = 1.1 million), psychological well-being (measured by self-esteem, life satisfaction, and happiness) suddenly decreased after 2012. Adolescents who spent more time on electronic communication and screens (e.g., social media, the Internet, texting, gaming) and less time on nonscreen activities (e.g., in-person social interaction, sports/exercise, homework, attending religious services) had lower psychological well-being. Adolescents spending a small amount of time on electronic communication were the happiest. Psychological well-being was lower in years when adolescents spent more time on screens and higher in years when they spent more time on nonscreen activities, with changes in activities generally preceding declines in well-being. Cyclical economic indicators such as unemployment were not significantly correlated with well-being, suggesting that the Great Recession was not the cause of the decrease in psychological well-being, which may instead be at least partially due to the rapid adoption of smartphones and the subsequent shift in adolescents’ time use.

mvea [score hidden]

Journal Reference:

Jean M. Twenge, Gabrielle N. Martin, W. Keith Campbell.

Decreases in Psychological Well-Being Among American Adolescents After 2012 and Links to Screen Time During the Rise of Smartphone Technology.

Emotion, Jan 22, 2018;

DOI: 10.1037/emo0000403

Link: http://psycnet.apa.org/doiLanding?doi=10.1037%2Femo0000403

Abstract:

In nationally representative yearly surveys of United States 8th, 10th, and 12th graders 1991–2016 (N = 1.1 million), psychological well-being (measured by self-esteem, life satisfaction, and happiness) suddenly decreased after 2012. Adolescents who spent more time on electronic communication and screens (e.g., social media, the Internet, texting, gaming) and less time on nonscreen activities (e.g., in-person social interaction, sports/exercise, homework, attending religious services) had lower psychological well-being. Adolescents spending a small amount of time on electronic communication were the happiest. Psychological well-being was lower in years when adolescents spent more time on screens and higher in years when they spent more time on nonscreen activities, with changes in activities generally preceding declines in well-being. Cyclical economic indicators such as unemployment were not significantly correlated with well-being, suggesting that the Great Recession was not the cause of the decrease in psychological well-being, which may instead be at least partially due to the rapid adoption of smartphones and the subsequent shift in adolescents’ time use.

mvea 2 points

Journal reference:

SiGe epitaxial memory for neuromorphic computing with reproducible high performance based on engineered dislocations

Shinhyun Choi, Scott H. Tan, Zefan Li, Yunjo Kim, Chanyeol Choi, Pai-Yu Chen, Hanwool Yeon, Shimeng Yu & Jeehwan Kim

Nature Materials (2018)

doi:10.1038/s41563-017-0001-5

Link: https://www.nature.com/articles/s41563-017-0001-5

Published online: 22 January 2018

Abstract

Although several types of architecture combining memory cells and transistors have been used to demonstrate artificial synaptic arrays, they usually present limited scalability and high power consumption. Transistor-free analog switching devices may overcome these limitations, yet the typical switching process they rely on—formation of filaments in an amorphous medium—is not easily controlled and hence hampers the spatial and temporal reproducibility of the performance. Here, we demonstrate analog resistive switching devices that possess desired characteristics for neuromorphic computing networks with minimal performance variations using a single-crystalline SiGe layer epitaxially grown on Si as a switching medium. Such epitaxial random access memories utilize threading dislocations in SiGe to confine metal filaments in a defined, one-dimensional channel. This confinement results in drastically enhanced switching uniformity and long retention/high endurance with a high analog on/off ratio. Simulations using the MNIST handwritten recognition data set prove that epitaxial random access memories can operate with an online learning accuracy of 95.1%.

mvea 1 point

Journal reference:

Potentially dangerous consequences for biodiversity of solar geoengineering implementation and termination

Christopher H. Trisos, Giuseppe Amatulli, Jessica Gurevitch, Alan Robock, Lili Xia & Brian Zambri

Nature Ecology & Evolution (2018)

doi:10.1038/s41559-017-0431-0

Link: https://www.nature.com/articles/s41559-017-0431-0

Published online: 22 January 2018

Abstract

Solar geoengineering is receiving increased policy attention as a potential tool to offset climate warming. While climate responses to geoengineering have been studied in detail, the potential biodiversity consequences are largely unknown. To avoid extinction, species must either adapt or move to track shifting climates. Here, we assess the effects of the rapid implementation, continuation and sudden termination of geoengineering on climate velocities—the speeds and directions that species would need to move to track changes in climate. Compared to a moderate climate change scenario (RCP4.5), rapid geoengineering implementation reduces temperature velocities towards zero in terrestrial biodiversity hotspots. In contrast, sudden termination increases both ocean and land temperature velocities to unprecedented speeds (global medians >10 km yr−1) that are more than double the temperature velocities for recent and future climate change in global biodiversity hotspots. Furthermore, as climate velocities more than double in speed, rapid climate fragmentation occurs in biomes such as temperate grasslands and forests where temperature and precipitation velocity vectors diverge spatially by >90°. Rapid geoengineering termination would significantly increase the threats to biodiversity from climate change.

mvea 1 point

Journal reference:

Radovic, S., Melvin, G. A., & Gordon, M. S. (2017).

Exercise as an Adjunct in the Treatment of Adolescent Depression.

Evidence-Based Practice in Child and Adolescent Mental Health, 4(3-4), 139-149.

DOI: https://doi.org/10.1080/23794925.2017.1362328

Link: http://www.tandfonline.com/doi/full/10.1080/23794925.2017.1362328

Abstract:

Little attention has been devoted to examining the role of exercise in the reduction of depressive symptoms among adolescents with depressive disorders, and the majority of studies examining the efficacy of exercise have been conducted in group and supervised settings. Due to limitations surrounding the clinical utility of group exercise interventions, this pilot study aimed to explore the feasibility and effectiveness of a self-directed, individual exercise intervention among depressed adolescents. Adolescents with diagnoses of major depressive disorder (MDD; n = 9) completed a 4-week exercise intervention as an adjunct to treatment as usual. A multiple baseline design was utilized. A moderate significant reduction in depressive symptoms was found at postintervention, z (N = 9) = –2.67, p = .008, r2 = .40, with no difference in depressive symptoms found throughout the 2-week baseline period. The intervention had a high level of participant satisfaction, low attrition rate, and moderate level of exercise adherence. Factors relating to the feasibility of the intervention were explored.

mvea 2 points

Journal reference:

Hook innovation boosts foraging efficiency in tool-using crows

James J. H. St Clair, Barbara C. Klump, Shoko Sugasawa, Caitlin G. Higgott, Nick Colegrave & Christian Rutz

Nature Ecology & Evolution (2018)

doi:10.1038/s41559-017-0429-7

Link: https://www.nature.com/articles/s41559-017-0429-7

Published online: 22 January 2018

Abstract

The New Caledonian crow is the only non-human animal known to craft hooked tools in the wild, but the ecological benefit of these relatively complex tools remains unknown. Here, we show that crows acquire food several times faster when using hooked rather than non-hooked tools, regardless of tool material, prey type and extraction context. This implies that small changes to tool shape can strongly affect energy-intake rates, highlighting a powerful driver for technological advancement.

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MVEA - Clinical Professor - MD, PhD, MBA

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An Australian clinician academic with an interest in Science, Medicine, Technology and Futurology

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