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Original Poster2 points · 7 hours ago

Journal reference:

Up and away: ontogenic transference as a pathway for aerial dispersal of microplastics

Rana Al-Jaibachi, Ross N. Cuthbert, Amanda Callaghan

Biology Letters 2018

Published 19 September 2018

DOI: 10.1098/rsbl.2018.0479

Link: http://rsbl.royalsocietypublishing.org/content/14/9/20180479

Abstract

Microplastics (MPs) are ubiquitous pollutants found in marine, freshwater and terrestrial ecosystems. With so many MPs in aquatic systems, it is inevitable that they will be ingested by aquatic organisms and be transferred up through the food chain. However, to date, no study has considered whether MPs can be transmitted by means of ontogenic transference, i.e. between life stages that use different habitats. Here, we determine whether fluorescent polystyrene beads could transfer between Culex mosquito life stages and, particularly, could move into the flying adult stage. We show for the first time that MPs can be transferred ontogenically from a feeding (larva) into a non-feeding (pupa) life stage and subsequently into the adult terrestrial life stage. However, transference is dependent on particle size, with smaller 2 µm MPs transferring readily into pupae and adult stages, while 15 µm MPs transferred at a significantly reduced rate. MPs appear to accumulate in the Malpighian tubule renal excretion system. The transfer of MPs to the adults represents a potential aerial pathway to contamination of new environments. Thus, any organism that feeds on terrestrial life phases of freshwater insects could be impacted by MPs found in aquatic ecosystems.

Original Poster1 point · 7 hours ago

Journal reference:

Up and away: ontogenic transference as a pathway for aerial dispersal of microplastics

Rana Al-Jaibachi, Ross N. Cuthbert, Amanda Callaghan

Biology Letters 2018

Published 19 September 2018

DOI: 10.1098/rsbl.2018.0479

Link: http://rsbl.royalsocietypublishing.org/content/14/9/20180479

Abstract

Microplastics (MPs) are ubiquitous pollutants found in marine, freshwater and terrestrial ecosystems. With so many MPs in aquatic systems, it is inevitable that they will be ingested by aquatic organisms and be transferred up through the food chain. However, to date, no study has considered whether MPs can be transmitted by means of ontogenic transference, i.e. between life stages that use different habitats. Here, we determine whether fluorescent polystyrene beads could transfer between Culex mosquito life stages and, particularly, could move into the flying adult stage. We show for the first time that MPs can be transferred ontogenically from a feeding (larva) into a non-feeding (pupa) life stage and subsequently into the adult terrestrial life stage. However, transference is dependent on particle size, with smaller 2 µm MPs transferring readily into pupae and adult stages, while 15 µm MPs transferred at a significantly reduced rate. MPs appear to accumulate in the Malpighian tubule renal excretion system. The transfer of MPs to the adults represents a potential aerial pathway to contamination of new environments. Thus, any organism that feeds on terrestrial life phases of freshwater insects could be impacted by MPs found in aquatic ecosystems.

Original Poster3 points · 7 hours ago

The post title is a copy and paste from the title and third paragraph of the linked popular press article here :

Children's yoghurts contain 'shocking' amounts of sugar, study finds

To be classed as “low sugar” and earn a green label on their packaging, food products must contain a maximum of 5g of sugar per 100g. But a new study, which looked at almost 900 yoghurt products available on British supermarket shelves in autumn 2016, has revealed that those aimed at children had on average more than twice this level.

Journal Reference:

Moore JB, Horti A, Fielding BA

Evaluation of the nutrient content of yogurts: a comprehensive survey of yogurt products in the major UK supermarkets

BMJ Open 2018;8:e021387.

doi: 10.1136/bmjopen-2017-021387

Link: https://bmjopen.bmj.com/content/8/8/e021387

Abstract

Objectives To comprehensively survey the sugar and nutrient contents of yogurt products available in UK supermarkets, in particular those marketed to children.

Design A cross-sectional survey of yogurt products available in the UK’s supermarkets in November 2016.

Methods Data were collected from five major online UK supermarkets and a process flow strategy was used to place yogurts into eight categories: children’s, dairy alternatives, dessert, drinks, fruit, flavoured, natural/Greek style and organic. A comprehensive database of product information for 921 unique products was created and analysed.

Results The total sugar, fat, protein, calcium and energy contents were highly variable across categories, and the ranges were extremely broad. Although lower than the dessert category, the medians (range) of the total sugar content of children’s (10.8 g/100 g (4.8–14.5)), fruit (11.9 g/100 g (4.6–21.3)), flavoured (12.0 g/100 g (0.1–18.8)) and organic (13.1 g/100 g (3.8–16.9)) yogurt products were all well above 10 g/100 g, and represented >45% of total energy. Only two out of 101 children’s yogurt and fromage frais products surveyed qualified as low sugar (≤5 g/100 g). Natural/Greek yogurts had dramatically lower sugar contents (5.0 g/100 g (1.6, 9.5), largely lactose) than all other categories. While low-fat (<3 g/100 g) products had less sugar and energy than higher fat yogurts, nonetheless 55% (285 of 518 low-fat yogurts) contained between 10 and 20 g sugar/100 g. Within the children’s category, fromage frais had higher protein (5.3 g/100 g (3.3, 8.6) vs 3.2 (2.8, 7.1); p<0.0001) and calcium contents (150 mg/100 g (90, 240) vs 130.5 mg/100 g (114, 258); p=0.0015) than yogurts.

Conclusions While there is good evidence that yogurt can be beneficial to health, products on the market vary widely in total sugars. Fewer than 9%, and only 2% of the children’s, products surveyed were low enough in sugar to earn ‘green’ in UK front of the pack labelling. Reformulation for the reduction of free sugars in yogurts is warranted.

Original Poster16 points · 8 hours ago

The title of the post is a copy and paste from the title and seventh paragraph of the linked academic press release here :

Schizotypy and bullshit receptivity predict belief in conspiracy theories

Schizotypy is a constellation of schizophrenia-like personality traits that includes suspiciousness and magical thinking, while people who endorse dangerous-world beliefs think the world could suddenly erupt in chaos at any moment. People high in bullshit receptivity, meanwhile, are more likely to view meaningless statements — such as “wholeness quiets infinite phenomena” — as profound statements.

Journal Reference:

Hart, J., & Graether, M. (2018).

Something’s going on here: Psychological predictors of belief in conspiracy theories.

Journal of Individual Differences. Advance online publication.

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1027/1614-0001/a000268

Link: http://psycnet.apa.org/record/2018-39057-001

Abstract

Research on individual-difference factors predicting belief in conspiracy theories has proceeded along several independent lines that converge on a profile of conspiracy believers as individuals who are relatively untrusting, ideologically eccentric, concerned about personal safety, and prone to perceiving agency in actions and profundity in bullshit. The present research represents the first attempt at an integrative approach to testing the independent contributions of these diverse factors to conspiratorial thinking. Two studies (N = 1,253) found that schizotypy, dangerous-world beliefs, and bullshit receptivity independently and additively predict endorsement of generic (i.e., nonpartisan) conspiracy beliefs. Results suggest that “hyperactive” agency detection and political orientation (and related variables) might also play a role. The studies found no effects of situational threats (mortality salience or a sense of powerlessness) – though it remains to be seen whether real-world instantiations of situational threats might move some people to seek refuge in conspiratorial ideation.

Original Poster6 points · 8 hours ago

The title of the post is a copy and paste from the title and seventh paragraph of the linked academic press release here :

Schizotypy and bullshit receptivity predict belief in conspiracy theories

Schizotypy is a constellation of schizophrenia-like personality traits that includes suspiciousness and magical thinking, while people who endorse dangerous-world beliefs think the world could suddenly erupt in chaos at any moment. People high in bullshit receptivity, meanwhile, are more likely to view meaningless statements — such as “wholeness quiets infinite phenomena” — as profound statements.

Journal Reference:

Hart, J., & Graether, M. (2018).

Something’s going on here: Psychological predictors of belief in conspiracy theories.

Journal of Individual Differences. Advance online publication.

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1027/1614-0001/a000268

Link: http://psycnet.apa.org/record/2018-39057-001

Abstract

Research on individual-difference factors predicting belief in conspiracy theories has proceeded along several independent lines that converge on a profile of conspiracy believers as individuals who are relatively untrusting, ideologically eccentric, concerned about personal safety, and prone to perceiving agency in actions and profundity in bullshit. The present research represents the first attempt at an integrative approach to testing the independent contributions of these diverse factors to conspiratorial thinking. Two studies (N = 1,253) found that schizotypy, dangerous-world beliefs, and bullshit receptivity independently and additively predict endorsement of generic (i.e., nonpartisan) conspiracy beliefs. Results suggest that “hyperactive” agency detection and political orientation (and related variables) might also play a role. The studies found no effects of situational threats (mortality salience or a sense of powerlessness) – though it remains to be seen whether real-world instantiations of situational threats might move some people to seek refuge in conspiratorial ideation.

Original Poster1 point · 8 hours ago

The title of the post is a copy and paste from the first two paragraphs of the linked academic press release here :

Encouraging children “to help,” rather than asking them to “be helpers,” can instill persistence as they work to fulfill daily tasks that are difficult to complete, finds a new psychology study.

The research, conducted by a team of New York University scientists, suggests that using verbs to talk about actions with children, such as encouraging them to help, read, and paint, may help lead to more resilience following the setbacks that they inevitably experience rather than using nouns to talk about identities—for example, asking them to be helpers, readers, or artists.

Journal Reference:

http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/cdev.13147

Original Poster2 points · 8 hours ago

The title of the post is a copy and paste from the first two paragraphs of the linked academic press release here :

Encouraging children “to help,” rather than asking them to “be helpers,” can instill persistence as they work to fulfill daily tasks that are difficult to complete, finds a new psychology study.

The research, conducted by a team of New York University scientists, suggests that using verbs to talk about actions with children, such as encouraging them to help, read, and paint, may help lead to more resilience following the setbacks that they inevitably experience rather than using nouns to talk about identities—for example, asking them to be helpers, readers, or artists.

Journal Reference:

http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/cdev.13147

Original Poster3 points · 8 hours ago

The title of the post is a copy and paste from the first paragraph of the linked academic press release here :

In the first study of its kind, researchers from the Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai have found significantly lower birth weights in male infants—an average decrease of 38 grams, or approximately 1.3 ounces—born to women who had been exposed to trauma at some point in their lives and who secreted higher levels of cortisol, a hormone related to stress, in late pregnancy.

Journal Reference:

Julie D. Flom, Yueh-Hsiu Mathilda Chiu, Hsiao-Hsien Leon Hsu, Katrina L. Devick, Kelly J. Brunst, Rebecca Campbell, Michelle Bosquet Enlow, Brent A. Coull, Rosalind J. Wright.

Maternal Lifetime Trauma and Birthweight: Effect Modification by In Utero Cortisol and Child Sex.

The Journal of Pediatrics, 2018;

DOI: 10.1016/j.jpeds.2018.07.069

Link: https://www.jpeds.com/article/S0022-3476(18)31031-X/fulltext

Abstract

Objectives To evaluate associations between maternal lifetime traumatic stress and offspring birthweight and examine modifying effects of third trimester cortisol and fetal sex.

Study design Analyses included 314 mother–infant dyads from an ethnically mixed pregnancy cohort. Maternal lifetime trauma was reported via the Life Stressor Checklist-Revised. Fenton birthweight for gestational age z-scores (BWGA-z) were calculated. A 3-cm scalp-nearest maternal hair segment collected at birth was assayed to reflect cumulative third trimester cortisol secretion. Multivariable regression was used to investigate associations between maternal lifetime trauma and BWGA-z and examine 2- and 3-way interactions with cortisol and fetal sex. Because subjects with low or high cortisol levels could represent susceptible populations, varying coefficient models that relax the linearity assumption on cortisol level were used to assess the modification of maternal lifetime trauma associations with BWGA-z as a function of cortisol.

Results Women were primarily minorities (41% Hispanic, 26% black) with ≤12 years education (63%); 63% reported ≥1 traumatic event. Prenatal cortisol modified the association between maternal lifetime trauma and birthweight. Women with higher lifetime trauma and increased cortisol had significantly lower birthweight infants in males; among males exposed to the 90th percentile of cortisol, a 1-unit increase in trauma score was associated with a 0.19-unit decrease in BWGA-z (95% CI, −0.34 to −0.04). Associations among females were nonsignificant, regardless of cortisol level.

Conclusions These findings underscore the need to consider complex interactions among maternal trauma, disrupted in utero cortisol production, and fetal sex to fully elucidate intergenerational effects of maternal lifetime trauma.

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