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mvea [score hidden]

I’ve linked to the popular press news article of the study. The post title is a copy and paste from the linked article’s subtitles:

Beautiful people arguably have an easier life — they're happier, healthier, and have more friends. A common belief is that good-looking people also earn more money. But a new study turns this theory on its head. Researchers have found that people who are "very unattractive" may be the biggest earners. So your looks might not let you down, at least when it comes to money.

And fourth paragraph:

Satoshi Kanazawa from the London School of Economics and Political Science and Mary Still from the University of Massachusetts in Boston analysed data from a study of 20,000 young Americans. They were interviewed and measured on physical attractiveness at age 16 then three more times until they were 29.

The actual direct journal reference is here:

Kanazawa, S. & Still, M.C. (2017).

Is there really a beauty premium or an ugliness penalty on earnings?

Journal of Business and Psychology.

DOI: 10.1007/s10869-017-9489-6

Link: https://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/s10869-017-9489-6

Abstract

Purpose

Economists have widely documented the “beauty premium” and “ugliness penalty” on earnings. Explanations based on employer and client discrimination would predict a monotonic association between physical attractiveness and earnings; explanations based on occupational self-selection would explain the beauty premium as a function of workers’ occupations; and explanations based on individual differences would predict that the beauty premium would disappear once appropriate individual differences are controlled. In this paper, we empirically tested the three competing hypotheses about the “beauty premium”.

Design/Methodology/Approach

We analyzed a nationally representative and prospectively longitudinal sample from the National Longitudinal Survey of Adolescent Health (Add Health).

Findings

The results contradicted the discrimination and self-selection explanations and strongly supported the individual differences explanation. Very unattractive respondents always earned significantly more than unattractive respondents, sometimes more than average-looking or attractive respondents. Multiple regression analyses showed that there was very weak evidence for the beauty premium, and it disappeared completely once individual differences, such as health, intelligence, and Big Five personality factors, were statistically controlled.

Implications

Past findings of beauty premium and ugliness penalty may possibly be due to the fact that: 1) “very unattractive” and “unattractive” categories are usually collapsed into “below average” category; and 2) health, intelligence (as opposed to education) and Big Five personality factors are not controlled. It appears that more beautiful workers earn more, not because they are beautiful, but because they are healthier, more intelligent, and have better (more Conscientious and Extraverted, and less Neurotic) personality.

Originality/Value

This is the first study to show that: 1) very unattractive workers have extremely high earnings and earn more than physically more attractive workers, suggesting evidence for the potential ugliness premium; and 2) the apparent beauty premium and ugliness penalty may be a function of unmeasured traits correlated with physical attractiveness, such as health, intelligence, and personality.

mvea [score hidden]

The post title is a copy and paste from the first paragraph of the linked popular press article here :

By passively monitoring user-generated data from medical cannabis patients, researchers have glimpsed the types and amounts of marijuana that seem effective for relieving symptoms of stress, anxiety, and depression.

Journal Reference:

A naturalistic examination of the perceived effects of cannabis on negative affect

Carrie CuttlercorrespondenceEmail the author Carrie Cuttler, Alexander Spradlin, Ryan J. McLaughlin

Published Online: April 06, 2018

DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jad.2018.04.054

Link: http://www.jad-journal.com/article/S0165-0327(18)30310-0/fulltext

Highlights

•Cannabis significantly reduced ratings of depression, anxiety, and stress.

•Women reported larger reductions in anxiety as a function of cannabis than did men.

•Low THC/high CBD cannabis was best for reducing perceived symptoms of depression.

•High THC/high CBD cannabis was best for reducing perceived symptoms of stress.

•Use of cannabis to treat depression appears to exacerbate depression over time.

Background

Cannabis is commonly used to alleviate symptoms of negative affect. However, a paucity of research has examined the acute effects of cannabis on negative affect in everyday life. The current study provides a naturalistic account of perceived changes in symptoms of depression, anxiety, and stress as a function of dose and concentration of Δ9tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) and cannabidiol (CBD).

Method

Data from the app StrainprintTM (which provides medical cannabis users a means of tracking changes in symptoms as a function of different doses and chemotypes of cannabis) were analyzed using multilevel modeling. In total, 11,953 tracked sessions were analyzed (3,151 for depression, 5,085 for anxiety, and 3,717 for stress).

Results

Medical cannabis users perceived a 50% reduction in depression and a 58% reduction in anxiety and stress following cannabis use. Two puffs were sufficient to reduce ratings of depression and anxiety, while 10+ puffs produced the greatest perceived reductions in stress. High CBD (>9.5%)/low THC (<5.5%) cannabis was associated with the largest changes in depression ratings, while high CBD (>11%)/high THC (>26.5%) cannabis produced the largest perceived changes in stress. No changes in the perceived efficacy of cannabis were detected across time. However, baseline symptoms of depression (but not anxiety or stress) appeared to be exacerbated across time/tracked sessions.

Limitations

The primary limitations are the self-selected nature of the sample and the inability to control for expectancy effects.

Conclusions

Cannabis reduces perceived symptoms of negative affect in the short-term, but continued use may exacerbate baseline symptoms of depression over time.

mvea [score hidden]

The post title is a copy and paste from the first paragraph of the linked popular press article here :

By passively monitoring user-generated data from medical cannabis patients, researchers have glimpsed the types and amounts of marijuana that seem effective for relieving symptoms of stress, anxiety, and depression.

Journal Reference:

A naturalistic examination of the perceived effects of cannabis on negative affect

Carrie CuttlercorrespondenceEmail the author Carrie Cuttler, Alexander Spradlin, Ryan J. McLaughlin

Published Online: April 06, 2018

DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jad.2018.04.054

Link: http://www.jad-journal.com/article/S0165-0327(18)30310-0/fulltext

Highlights

•Cannabis significantly reduced ratings of depression, anxiety, and stress.

•Women reported larger reductions in anxiety as a function of cannabis than did men.

•Low THC/high CBD cannabis was best for reducing perceived symptoms of depression.

•High THC/high CBD cannabis was best for reducing perceived symptoms of stress.

•Use of cannabis to treat depression appears to exacerbate depression over time.

Background

Cannabis is commonly used to alleviate symptoms of negative affect. However, a paucity of research has examined the acute effects of cannabis on negative affect in everyday life. The current study provides a naturalistic account of perceived changes in symptoms of depression, anxiety, and stress as a function of dose and concentration of Δ9tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) and cannabidiol (CBD).

Method

Data from the app StrainprintTM (which provides medical cannabis users a means of tracking changes in symptoms as a function of different doses and chemotypes of cannabis) were analyzed using multilevel modeling. In total, 11,953 tracked sessions were analyzed (3,151 for depression, 5,085 for anxiety, and 3,717 for stress).

Results

Medical cannabis users perceived a 50% reduction in depression and a 58% reduction in anxiety and stress following cannabis use. Two puffs were sufficient to reduce ratings of depression and anxiety, while 10+ puffs produced the greatest perceived reductions in stress. High CBD (>9.5%)/low THC (<5.5%) cannabis was associated with the largest changes in depression ratings, while high CBD (>11%)/high THC (>26.5%) cannabis produced the largest perceived changes in stress. No changes in the perceived efficacy of cannabis were detected across time. However, baseline symptoms of depression (but not anxiety or stress) appeared to be exacerbated across time/tracked sessions.

Limitations

The primary limitations are the self-selected nature of the sample and the inability to control for expectancy effects.

Conclusions

Cannabis reduces perceived symptoms of negative affect in the short-term, but continued use may exacerbate baseline symptoms of depression over time.

mvea commented on a post in r/Futurology
mvea [M] [score hidden]

Thank you for contributing. However, your submission was removed from /r/Futurology

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mvea commented on a post in r/Futurology
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MVEA - Clinical Professor - MD, PhD, MBA

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